To make full use of a disk greater than 2TB you need a GPT disk.
Of course the OS you use must be able to handle a GPT disk, but most recent flavors of Linux, MacOS, and Windows can do this.
You do not need UEFI to make use of a GPT disk, unless perhaps you are running Windows.
I don't run windows so I can't say for sure.
I do know that to BOOT from a GPT disk, Windows insists on UEFI, but I don't know if that applies to data disks as well.
Linux can handle GPT disks fine without UEFI.
Disk size is a GPT vs MBR kind of issue, not a UEFI one. Mixing GPT with UEFI is a Microsoft business tactic, not a technical issue.