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So what makes the "default" vhost in apache a wildcard for unconfigured domains? ie. what makes this vhost be loaded over anything else when you try and load a domain that isn't configured, in a web browser? I have a feeling it could just be the lack of ServerName and ServerAlias arguments?

I have just set up a new Apache instance and created a new vhost alongside the default. Even when I specify a ServerName, run a2ensite and reload apache, it still loads the default page from the default vhost.

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The default virtual host is the very first one parsed. That's why in /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/ it usually is put as 000-default.

You can also check by using apache2ctl -S. It explicitly states which virtual host is the default one.

Maybe you have a typo in your configuration? Check the leading VirtualHost line for IP and port and check ServerName and ServerAlias for typos as well.

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