REVISED based upon further information provided by OP
As I understand it, you want to transform a column of values into a table with each column representing a year's worth of values starting at a specified date. In developing my answer, I have made three assumptions to deal with possibilities that your question raises but does not address:
The values in the original column are already associated with specific dates, i.e., the first value is tied to a specific date, say, Jan. 1, 2013, the second value to Jan. 2, etc.
Those values may be numerical data or they may be consecutive dates.
The specified date may be any date in the year.
The following formula will produce the output you want. It should be entered into the initial cell of the output table copied across for a total of ten columns for the ten years of values, and down through the 366 rows of values for each year, including a row for the extra day in leap years. (The full setup of the worksheet is shown in the pictures below.)
This expression is essentially an
INDEX formula, elaborated to deal with what to show in the 366th row of the output table when the year is not a leap year.
Data1 is the named range of data values; the
IF statement returns the row index, except in non-leap years, when it replaces with a dash (-) the calculated row index for the 366th row of the output table.
The output table proper begins in cell E2. If your table is place differently in the worksheet, you will need to adjust the anchored references E$2, $E$2 and $C$2 in the formula to reflect where the first cell in the header row of the table starts and where the date for the first value is.
The picture below shows the values (in this case, just a set of dates beginning with 1/1/2013), the two other inputs needed, and the resulting output table with a starting date of 1/4/2013.
The middle section of the picture shows the bottom of the output table, which correctly displays one extra value for the 2016 leap year.
The bottom section shows that the 3652 data values are padded with the dash character, which is used to indicate when no more values remain in the tenth year, due to a start date after the beginning of the year.
The image below shows the same worksheet using (random) values other than dates as input. The only change in the output formulas is the use of the named value range
Data2 instead of