On Linux, a file system can be mounted if either one (or both) of these conditions are met:
- The file system is listed in /etc/fstab with the
user option set (allow ordinary users to mount), or
- You have superuser access
So the simple answer to your question is almost certainly no, you cannot mount a random file system without root access.
The reason for this is that if regular users were allowed to mount whatever device they wanted as a file system wherever they wanted, they could potentially use that to bypass security restrictions. Requiring that the administrator explicitly configures file systems the users should be able to mount themselves by device and mount point centralizes control, which in a multi-user system is essential.
Note that there is nothing inherently magical about the file system table being stored in /etc/fstab in particular. The fstab file is read by
mount, not by the kernel, and mount could just as easily look elsewhere for file system specifications.