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I want to use launchd to kick off a script to backup changed files. It looks like it should work for what I want to do, but I don't know how to pass to my script that launchd starts, the path of the updated file. So if I'm watching directory foo and file bar.txt is changed, how do I get my launchd.plist or the script it runs to get the value of bar.txt?

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I haven't found any way to do it with launchd. Could you just use rsync or something? Or check the modification dates in the script, by for example using find if it's a shell script:

find /some/path -mindepth 1 -maxdepth 1 -mtime -20s

Folder actions do get pathnames as an argument, but they are only run when files are added to a folder and not when files are modified. You can create a folder action by using the folder action template in Automator, or by saving a script like the one below in ~/Library/Workflows/Applications/Folder Actions/ and then enabling the script from Folder Actions Setup.

on adding folder items to this_folder after receiving these_items
    say POSIX path of item 1 of these_items
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