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Example (Using Debian Wheezy):

sudo apt-get source hello

Result:

Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree       
Reading state information... Done
Need to get 705 kB of source archives.
Get:1 http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ testing/main hello 2.8-3 (dsc) [1287 B]
Get:2 http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ testing/main hello 2.8-3 (tar) [697 kB]
Get:3 http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ testing/main hello 2.8-3 (diff) [6598 B]                                                               
Fetched 705 kB in 8s (80.6 kB/s)                                                                                                              
gpgv: keyblock resource `/root/.gnupg/trustedkeys.gpg': file open error
gpgv: Signature made Wed Feb 13 10:30:20 2013 UTC using RSA key ID 9F1B8B32
gpgv: Can't check signature: public key not found
dpkg-source: warning: failed to verify signature on ./hello_2.8-3.dsc
dpkg-source: info: extracting hello in hello-2.8
dpkg-source: info: unpacking hello_2.8.orig.tar.gz
dpkg-source: info: unpacking hello_2.8-3.debian.tar.gz

The dpkg-dev and debian-keyring package is already installed.

I tried running apt-get source as user, as root, used "gpg --recv-keys 9F1B8B32" beforehand as user and as root. Nothing helped to get the downloaded sources verified.

How can I get rid of this "dpkg-source: warning: failed to verify signature" warning?

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try it with gpg --keyserver keyring.debian.org --recv-keys 9F1B8B32? –  angs Aug 1 '13 at 17:58
    
Did not help... –  user28464 Aug 1 '13 at 18:40
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2 Answers

do

apt-get install debian-keyring

to install all debian developer keyrings. It would check after that.

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The dpkg-dev and debian-keyring package is already installed. Edited the original question with that information. –  user28464 Aug 1 '13 at 18:18
    
@user28464 that is most strange, can you try "apt-get update; apt-get install --reinstall debian-keyring"? what does "ls -l /usr/share/keyrings" return? –  Matija Nalis Aug 1 '13 at 19:32
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It is debian-keyring you want (the .dsc file being checked is signed by the maintainer) but installing debian-keyring still leaves some plumbing to be done to make gpg consider the developer keys (automatically considering them would be a can of worms, which is presumably why the plumbing isn't done as part of post-install).

If it's a one-off, recheck the .dsc after the fetch using:

gpg --keyring /usr/share/keyrings/debian-maintainers.gpg --verify *.dsc

If you'll be grabbing several, add:

keyring /usr/share/keyrings/debian-maintainers.gpg

to your ~/.gnupg/gpg.conf; from then on, gpg (and gpgv) will consider the developer/maintainer keys for signature verification. (If you're paranoid, you could use /usr/share/keyrings/debian-keyring.gpg which includes full developers but not maintainers.)

Neither approach will make the keys be considered valid, but that's probably what you want — if you obtained debian-keyring with a sanely configured apt-get/aptitude and that package's signature was checked, you can have reasonable confidence that the keys in there really belong to the developers/maintainers.

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