I bought a dedicated server. To him I got a single public IPv4 address. On this dedicated server I installed the latest version of VMware ESXi hypervisor. With the help of the hypervisor, I plan to install 4 operating systems. One for SFTP + MySQL, one for email, the third with Apache and PHP, and the fourth with BIND DNS server. I want to ask if it is not done using a single IP address to be given to all servers from the outside?
You can assign the same public IP to the VMs within your physical system if you want, but nothing will work.
You need to configure ESXi using vSphere or another tool and set up virtual networking. You have a lot of options ranging from bridging all the virtual NICs to the physical NIC (which is probably a bad idea and will probably not do what you want at all) or using NAT.