You can prevent mutt from appending your local domain name to unqualified addresses with
set nouse_domain. But, this won't cause any prompting for a correct address, it will only transfer the responsibility for qualifying the address to the first mail transfer agent that handles it.
There isn't currently an option to do what you're looking for. You may just want to get accustomed to looking over the addresses included on the compose screen before you tell mutt to actually send the message. Besides catching this type of error, that would also allow you to catch cases where you mistakenly did a group reply rather than replying just to the sender. And at that point you do have the opportunity to edit the recipients.