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While Ubuntu is starting up, the init rc commands are run. Is there a way to see their full output after the system has started?

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Have you checked the output of dmesg or the contents of /var/syslog? – Darth Android Aug 13 '13 at 17:50
Both dmesg and /var/syslog have syslog-generate comment, and not the output upon initialization. – Penz Aug 13 '13 at 19:56
up vote 2 down vote accepted

Ubuntu stores the output of the rc commands run at boot in /var/log/boot.log.

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/var/log/boot.log is exactly what I was looking for! That doesn't go through syslog, does it? – Penz Aug 14 '13 at 13:11
No, it doesn't use syslog. /var/log/boot.log is created by Plymouth. – Starfish Aug 14 '13 at 17:42

The default system log location in Ubuntu 13.04 is /var/log/syslog.

Log location settings are configured in /etc/rsyslog.d/50-default.conf

See man rsyslog.conf for more information.

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dmesg is a ring buffer, so it can be that messages from the top can be overwritten by newer messages, although at 16384 messages I doubt it.

Have you tried /var/log/boot.log or /var/log/kernel.log

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