Out of curiosity, is using standard built-in Microsoft Windows file and folder sharing services the only way of running a CIFS/SMB server on a Windows machine or are there alternatives (like open source Samba Win32 builds)?
I have found the answer myself, so let me share it for further reference:
There are Win32 versions of Samba and smbclient available. This smbclient version works just fine on Windows 7 32-bit and lets you to access Windows shares from command line without mounting then as network drives. The only problem is it requires cygwin to be installed.
UPDATE: Another problem is that I am still fighting with codepages...
UPDATE2: I have managed to figure out (experimentally) the correct codepages configuration for international non-ASCII setup, this is my smb.conf file that makes it work perfectly: