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I have a laser printer and sometimes I have continued using a toner cartridge until it is literally out of toner - ignoring the messages that the printer gives me.

Can this damage the printer in any way? For instance, the drum or the fuser unit? If possible, please let me know why/how - this is something I would like to teach others. How does the toner being low specifically interact with the other components?

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You can safelty assume that if a low toner could damage your laser printer that the printer would stop printing, allowing a user to damage their hardware, only increases the maintance costs for that user, when they make a warranty claim. –  Ramhound Oct 7 '13 at 15:06
    
Most modern laser printers will stop working at some point to prevent damage, if the toner is too low. Your question as it stands may be closed though, as it is asking an opinion, and you do not provide your exact printer make and model. –  user3463 Oct 7 '13 at 15:07
    
@RandolphWest I do ask for specific facts relating to how the toner being low would interact with the drum/fuser. I wouldn't consider that opinion. –  Moses Oct 7 '13 at 15:10
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@RandolphWest I removed the last question, as that did sound like a request for opinion. –  Moses Oct 7 '13 at 15:12
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You can safely assume that low toner will never cause any damage, but that printer companies may prevent the printer from printing past X number of pages to force you to buy new toner ($$ for them) when there is still useful life left in the toner you have. There is NOTHING that will damage the printer from having no toner in it. I consider the ability to print until the page is nearly white (ie, I change it when it no longer suits ME) to be an important selection criterion for laser printers, having met a few of the other sort, and found them to be irritating ransom-bots. –  Ecnerwal Oct 7 '13 at 20:12

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Short answer: No.

A laser printer will have a mixture of toner and developer in its developer housing. The physical interaction between the particles of toner and developer are what gives the toner an electrical charge. The polarity of this charge will depend on the development system being used in your specific printer.

The printer will either have a Toner Concentration (TC) sensor, or use an algorithm to determine how much toner is in the housing, and how much to dispense.

In many home and small office printers, when you replace the toner you also replace the developer as well, starting you with a known TC. If you are actually adding toner, only, then the printer will dispense toner to reach the working TC. I suppose it might take longer to tone up if you really ran it down.

In no case would you run into a permanent damage situation.

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As I bring up. If the printer has the ability to damage itself then it's a poorly made product because a user hit changing the toner can't or won't accept the blame if their printer is damaged beyond repair. The ink will run out well before a low toner will damage the printer itself –  Ramhound Oct 7 '13 at 19:49

Just look at how the laser printer works. http://computer.howstuffworks.com/laser-printer3.htm A laser beam create an electrical charge on a drum, this charge attract small particles of toner that are then transferred to the paper. Then the paper goes trough the oven that cook the toner to make it stick to paper. I see no reason why no toner can do any damage to the printer. It will just stay blank.

Do not believe printer sellers. They make no money on the printer but only on cartridge. So they will tell you to change them more often than necessary.

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