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If you are surfing a website from your web-browser on a machine that is connected to a LAN and there are many people on that network surfing Web at same time, how do web servers send back the data to the specific machines?

All web browsers will be using the same port 80 and there is only one public IP.

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If you're on a LAN (like on your home network or corporate network), chances are you going out to the internet through a router of some sort (in a home network this could be your WiFi router connected to your ISP's modem). This router will probably have NAT (network address translation) enabled that will allow what your talking about.

In a nutshell what happens is the router has a 'NAT table' that keeps track of what internal traffic is mapped to what external traffic. In this way multiple users are able to surf the web behind a single public IP without interfering with each others sessions.

I hope that can help out.

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