Generally no. Most phones will only charge at 500mA (about half of what a DC charger for a modern smartphone outputs) if it detects it is a USB port. The official standard sets USB 2.0 current levels at 500mA and 3.0 at 950mA. It is not uncommon for USB ports to support 1A or higher though, especially on laptops.
The problem lies with the phones. Some phones can use a modified kernel that allows you to tell the phone to ignore the 500mA limit on USB. This is often known as USB fast charge. Without this, most phones will simply charge at 500mA regardless of the USB flavor you choose. I can't say for sure about the Galaxy Note 3, however, as it is the only device with an actual USB 3.0 interface. Theoretically this could charge at 950mA but I haven't seen anything to confirm it. Devices other than phones, who knows. It would depend on the device. You would have to test it and see.
Use your USB 3.0 ports for USB 3.0 devices and buy a charger for your phone. Or if you must, charge with USB but it will be much slower than a dedicated charger.