Is there equivalent filesystem option on Windows like 'noexec' mount option on Linux? Is it the same if I set "Read" permission, but unset "Read & Execute" permisson on root directory (whole drive)?
I believe that Noexec is a bit more specialised than that, however, if you clicked on the Advanced tab in security, then change objects through that, you have a lot more control
If you disable write abilities, you may be able to achieve something similar to what Noexec does, so it will still let programs run, but disable them from doing any sort of changes / writes.
As for your comment - you can manually add permissions for just folders -