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Well, I'm officially out of patience for this sort of thing, and it's 12:23 AM.

I'm trying to run Ubuntu 14.04 with Hyper-V on a Lenovo Yoga 2 Pro running Windows 8.1. I cannot get the virtual machine to connect to the internet - either through my machine's wireless adapter or through a Ethernet to USB port adapter I have. I've seen some guides on how this is to be done, but none make sense, and I think I'm just making things worse.

Step by step, how do I create a connection using my WiFi adapter so that the VM can get to the web?

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This is conceptual, not step by step, but it should explain enough to help you figure out what you need to do. The Hyper-V switch that the VM uses needs to be either External or Internal and not Private. Keep in mind that an External switch will look like a LAN connection to the VM, not a wireless connection even if on the real hardware it is associated with a wireless adapter. Also, an External switch may not work with all wireless routers as some recognise that a DHCP request coming from your VM is really coming from the same machine and won't give it an address.

The way around this (the wireless router sounds like the issue from your description) is to set the Hyper-V switch for your VM to be Internal and then use ICS (Internet Connection Sharing) on the hardware's real wireless adapter, sharing with the Hyper-V switch. ICS is on a tab when you open the properties on the adapter that just says "Sharing". It makes your adapter behave like it is a NAT router to the other adapters in your machine. It responds to the VM's DHCP request and allows the VM to connect to it so to speak.

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