Computer architecture refers to various aspects of computer system designs which can affect compatibility, performance, and interfacing. Some issues related to computer architecture can be processor word size, memory bus size, or protocol implementation.

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How do I catch my son looking at porn?

I am not very techy but I have a good idea that my son has been looking at inappropriate sites.. not the normal kind but the disgusting ones like dog porn, guy on guy, etc... Anyways, I think this ...
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operations process in a computer

Is it true that all high-level operations in a computer (say, copying, pasting, web surfing, running apps etc) are all finally converted to micro-operations (say, arithmetic, logical and shift) and ...
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How byte addressing works?

I am new to computer architecture. So correct me if I am wrong. If a memory module consists of 8 memory chips and if each chip stores 4bits per address then by applying an address to the address pin ...
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What does it mean (to decode) in the execution cycle

In a typical instruction cycle, fetching, decoding, executing together form one cycle. My question is about the decoding step: What is the part that gets decoded, is it the instruction's opcode? If ...
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1answer
27 views

Is there a difference CPU Clock and Instruction Clock?

I am a bit confused between CPU clock and instruction clock. I brought the following figure from this source as illustration. Does instruction clock imply the time it takes by the cpu clock to execute ...
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2answers
30 views

CPU clock cycle and instructions interpretation

I am new in computer architecture but I know the main topics since I had it as a course before. My question is in fact little deep and related to CPU clock cycle and how processor interpret ...
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1answer
14 views

The main difference between Superscalar and Parallelism

In superscalar processing, more than one instruction is executed in parallel at each core, so how would that differ from parallel processing then? Thank you.
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1answer
45 views

Is extra CPU on USB dongle possible? [closed]

Is it theoretically possible to build a local cluster for distributed computing using any type of a dongle plugged into a USB or HDMI port, and connecting to the Linux console inside over SSH just ...
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103 views

Why do we need a CPU clock [closed]

I'm very confused regarding the working of a cpu clock.The following questions arise in my mind-What is the need of a clock in a cpu ? What does synchronization mean in context of working of a cpu ? ...
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19 views

Isn't overall cache miss time more than direct ram access time

Suppose there is a computer with three cache's L1,L2(inside the processor) and L3(external to the cpu) and a RAM. Now suppose CPU need to access data "ABC" for some operation which is definitely ...
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1answer
93 views

How does physical distance between processor and memory/cache affect data transfer speeds

The L1 cache is situated inside the cpu to speed up the process of data access but since electrical signals travel at the speed of light(almost constant) which is blazingly fast then how does distance ...
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3answers
86 views

Is a BIOS update in a laptop done by altering some microcode?

How does a BIOS get updated? Is it by microprogramming or microcoding? If not, then what happens?
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'Power saver' mode in personal computers?

While working with laptops 'Battery saver' mode plays an important role. But what is the main reason behind this. Does the switching mode power supply woks in low-dissipation state or it's the ...
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Is it possible to create a distributed file system over P2P networks? [closed]

I was thinking about Napster, eMule, Kazaa and all that old school softwares to download and share digital content, like songs, books, videos and films. Learning about NFS (Network File System) and ...
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2answers
201 views

Do modern motherboards allow a PCI-E device to access ram without involving the CPU?

I'm doing research into novel Computer architectures and I need a clearer picture of how Memory Control works in a PC. In short, I would like to know whether a PCI-E device, such as a GPU can access ...
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Which cpus use Tri-state buffer for data bus

I must doing some research about data bus system of cpus and I have to determine which ones use Tri-state buffer and which ones use Mux system for loading common bus . ( it's my computer architecture ...
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1answer
66 views

How does CPU access BIOS instructions stored in external memory?

During the process of booting, CPU reads address of system BIOS from the Reset Vector and jumps to the location where BIOS is stored. My question here is: As BIOS is stored on some external memory ...
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111 views

Why does FAT32 only use 28-bits for addressing?

I was reading Why is FAT32 limited to 8 TiB? The answer to that question was that 4 bits were reserved "for future use". What advantage is there in reserving these bits? Surely register size, ...
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Is ALU used for all instructions?

On wikipedia page about Von Neumann Architecture is this picture. There are a lot of similar pictures like this.(Also in a lot of articles about Von Neumann Architecture is that only ALU execute ...
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How to calculate the rate by which CPU would be slowed down due to DMA transfer?

A DMA controller transfers 16 bit words to memory using cycle stealing .The words are assembled from a device that transmits characters at the rate of 2400 characters per second . The CPU is fetching ...
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86 views

What is meant by timer resolution in microseconds?

Sorry for putting up too simple of a question but I wanted to know what It meant by timer resolution in microseconds and resolution in nanoseconds? On what Basis this resolution is chosen ? Is it ...
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56 views

How does a computer get info about a connected monitor?

How does it get info, max resolution etc about it, for HDMI i could think of CEC, but what about VGA/DVI etc?
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2answers
48 views

Does 32 bit os running on 64 bit cpu support 4Gb ram [duplicate]

I want to know if I have a 32 bit OS running on a 64 bit cpu, will it detect or access 4 GB of ram or more
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28 views

What's the internal operations for a PC to copy data from an external flash drive to an internal HD?

I was asked about the operations on how data is copied from an external storage to an internal storage in a computer. The info I could find is about how a CPU fetches data from RAM. I don't have ...
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2answers
234 views

Difference between a read and load

What is the major difference between read and load and write and store? I know it is a very basic question, but somehow I'm not able to get it.
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2answers
75 views

Why is Xeon processor suited for HPC?

Among the different specs for Xeon, available here, http://ark.intel.com/compare/87720,84679, which aspects makes it relevant for HPC ? The processor base frequency is less than for Core i7. Why ...
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How Windows uses .inf files to load the correct drivers

What happens when a hardware device matches two or more inf files when Windows is loading the drivers for that devices? For example, the disk drive in my PC has two drivers loaded for it, cdrom.sys ...
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Is the Front Side Bus part of the CPU or the Motherboard?

Something I'm working on wants a very fast/wide Front Side Bus (FSB). What component is the FSB part of? Is it part of the CPU or the motherboard? Is it something that can be placed on a board, or is ...
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How is microcode loaded to processor?

I read that microcode is loaded in the processor on each reboot. It resides on flash memory and when the machine is booted, it gets copied to the CPU. Or in the case of Linux, the OS itself has the ...
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How To Alphabetically Organize Zip Files With Folders In Windows 8

In Windows 8, when I have a zip file in a folder of folders, it doesn't sort by name. The folder ends up looking something like this: gymnastics (folder) juggling (folder) unicycling (folder) ...
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318 views

What converts binary code/machine code to electrical signals and how? [closed]

I went through lots of blogs and posts but could not exactly figure out how the machine code is converted to electrical signals? Any software program is compiled to machine code which is nothing but ...
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3k views

What is the actual speed of SATA 3?

Google says it is running at 6Gb/s. The throughput is at 600MB/s. 600MB/s equals 4.8Gb/s. Does this mean that the bandwidth is 6Gb/s but the actual throughput is 4.8Gb/s ?
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203 views

Is there a difference between an I/O port and a physical port?

AFAIK, the following definitions apply: I/O ports are memory adresses used as an interface to communicate with external devices e.g. a printer. A physical port (i.e. connector) is the physical ...
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What happens if the associativity level is greater than the cache size?

I am working on a computer organization caching problem The Problem: What happens if the associativity level is greater than the cache size? I know that associativity level is how many blocks are ...
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305 views

How many bits are in the address field for a directly mapped cache?

Here is the problem I am working on: The Problem: " A high speed workstation has 64 bit words and 64 bit addresses with address resolution at the byte level. Assuming a direct mapped cache with 8192 ...
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183 views

How many words can be in the address space?

Here is the problem I am working on The Problem: A high speed workstation has 64 bit words and 64 bit addresses with address resolution at the byte level. How many words can in be in the address ...
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2answers
230 views

What does “address resolution at the byte level” mean?

Here is the problem I am working on The Problem :A high speed workstation has 64 bit words and 64 bit addresses with address resolution at the byte level. How many words can in be in the address ...
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335 views

If a 32 bit CPU has a 64bit bus system, is it 64 bit or 32 bit?

Let's say the internal registers of a CPU are 32 bits wide. But the CPU has a 64 bit system bus and the two separate pipelines are receiving information simultaneously, is it considered a 32bit ...
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How does a CPU decide which transistors to use? [closed]

Perhaps I'm not thinking about this correctly, but when you give the CPU a command such as Multiply Registers (MR) R2,R4 how does it decide which logic gates it will use, is it just the first gates ...
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277 views

What factors other than clock speed influence the performance of a CPU? [duplicate]

Having seen various people test powerful emulators on their computers, I have come to surprise hearing about how one CPU can have triple the clock speed but still have worse single-threaded ...
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What is this logic component?

This is from http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~milom/cse240-Fall05/handouts/Ch05.pdf , slide 9. From this diagram, I recognize 0001 as the opcode or ADD. I recognize 011, or 3, as the source register and ...
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Why is it not recommended to shut down a computer “brutally” (power switch)? [duplicate]

It is now in the general knowledge that one should not shut down a computer using its power switch. But why is that exactly? Is it a myth that stuck from past architectures? Is it solely to prevent ...
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663 views

Is disk read/write speed affected by processor architecture? [closed]

I am not sure what effect if any a 32 bit vs 64 bit architecture processor has on disk read/write speed. I believe that a 64 bit processor can address more main memory than 32 bit processor without ...
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1answer
3k views

Average time to read a single sector (disk)

If there is a magnetic disk as following: Average seek time: 12 ms Rotation rate: 3600 RPM Transfer rate: 3.5 MB/second Number of sectors per track: 64 Sector size: 512 bytes Controller ...
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Why a disk drive could not be connected (physically) to 2+ computers?

A friend of mine if a disk drive could be connected to more than one computer and I jumped directly to the "no" answer, but I realized that pretty much any inconvenient I could think of would be easy ...
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303 views

Why do uname -p and uname -m and arch output different architectures?

On mountain lion (late 2010) $ uname -p i386 $ uname -m x86_64 $ arch i386 So i368 (32 bit) is my processor architecture, and x86_64 (64 bit) is my machine hardware name according to the uname man ...
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1answer
4k views

understanding CPU,RAM,and Hard Disk Drive [duplicate]

I'm currently reading about how the computer works, specifically how the CPU, RAM, hard disk drive work together simultaneously. According to what I have read, the CPU uses what is called a control ...
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What is the state of the art in hardware for data error correction?

A decade (or more) ago when shopping for RAM one often had the option of specifying "server-grade" memory with an extra Error Correction Code (ECC). I haven't seen that as an explicit option in ...
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Why is cache leakage power consumption higher than other hardware units?

Is it correct that caches (SRAM cells) have higher leakage power compared to other hardware units with the same area such as ALU? And if so, why is the case?
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Are Modern Computers based on Von Neumann Model?

I read in the Foundation of Computer Science(by Behrouz A. Forouzan) textbook that a Von Neumann model's program must execute sequentially and the modern computer executes code in the order that's ...