Computer architecture refers to various aspects of computer system designs which can affect compatibility, performance, and interfacing. Some issues related to computer architecture can be processor word size, memory bus size, or protocol implementation.

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What is meant by distributed architecture in the context of old fashioned 1960s mainframes?

Here it says the CDC 6600 had a distributed architecture. It had a distributed architecture (central scientific processor supported by ten very fast peripheral machines) Can anyone elaborate on ...
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215 views

How shared graphics memory works?

How does shared graphics memory work? It is my understanding that when you set how much system memory to share with the graphics controller in the BIOS, this then becomes invisible to the OS, So ...
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118 views

Why don't computers start loading the OS earlier in the boot process?

I was reading an article referred to me from another thread on the Windows OS boot process, and while reading, I couldn't help but wonder -- When a computer turns on, why can't it start loading the ...
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Do I really need 1 GB Ram for a graphic card if i'm going to use only for HPC? [closed]

I have a Nvidia GT640 with 2GB memory and it requirements says that my computer must have at least 1 GB RAM. My computer can't have the enough needed ram (Could be a Raspberry Pi, CubieBoard, 86 Duino ...
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Difference between port mapped and memory mapped access?

Can anyone explain what's the difference between port mapping and memory mapping, and what having both accomplishes? Why is there port mapped, how does it differ in structure from memory maps, and is ...
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445 views

What is the actual data transfer rate for the magnetic disk with the given specifications?

I saw the question bellow in a Computer Organization Practice Book for University exams. Its given that, a magnetic disk has the following specifications: Number of tracks = 1024Number of ...
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18answers
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If 32-bit machines can only handle numbers up to 2^32, why can I write 1000000000000 (trillion) without my machine crashing?

32 bit computers can only store signed integers up to 232 - 1. This is why we have run out of ipv4 addresses and have entered the 64 bit era. However, the number 232 - 1 (2,147,483,647) is not as ...
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How does a USB external graphics card work?

I am interested in extending my multi-monitor setup, but I was wondering if anyone could shed a light on how external USB graphics cards work? I have extensively searched but have not found an ...
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2answers
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Is it possible to run a larger than 4GB .exe?

I created a >4GB SFX archive (the self extracting archives) in 7-Zip, without warning. When the recipient tried to extract it, he got this error ribbon: I found it's because the .exe is larger than ...
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1answer
75 views

max Ram size in 32-bit system [duplicate]

I know that on 32 bit system max number of memory cells in RAM is 2^32. But RAM in my computer show not exactly this size. Can someone explain why on 32 bit system size of RAM not equal max size of ...
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245 views

Doing some detective work on old computer hardware [closed]

On a recent holiday to Bangkok, I visited the science museum and planetarium that is there. While eating lunch I was very surprised to see some very recognisable vintage computer equipment in almost ...
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1answer
323 views

How interrupts and privilege levels work?

I'm trying to get a better understanding of how interrupts work (both hardware and software) and the privileges that go with them. If we use the NIC as an example. When the OS creates the IDT, does ...
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557 views

On x86 architecture, why are there fewer bits for virtual address space than physical?

I was reading this article on 64 bit computing, and it mentions: For example, the AMD64 architecture as of 2011 allowed 52 bits for physical memory and 48 bits for virtual memory I would think ...
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How to check my RAM configuration (Windows 7)?

I would like to check my RAM configuration. I know it is easy to check the total RAM installed on a computer (eg 32 GB), but is there an easy way to check in Windows if the RAM is e.g. 2x16 GB, 4x8 ...
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1answer
126 views

Why so many modes are in CPU?

In microprocessor, there are a number of modes like user mode,supervisor mode and so on depending on the architecture of the computer. Why they have created so many modes(why they have assigned so ...
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2answers
107 views

How to teach a gut without no computer major experience to program [closed]

I have a friend who is non - computer major. For example, he dose not know what is a bit,byte and etc. Now he want to program . So I wonder which language is better? C,JAVA or something else?
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4answers
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Why does x86 stands for 32bit OS [duplicate]

I often have seen 32bit OS being referred to x86 (i hope it is the x86 architecture). What is the significance of this 32bit and why is it related to x86.
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9answers
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Why have CPU manufacturers stopped increasing the clock speeds of their processors? [closed]

I have read that manufacturers stopped concentrating on higher clock speeds and are now working on other things to improve performance. With an old Desktop machine with Intel® Xeon® Processor E3110 ...
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2answers
456 views

Alternatives to the 0 and 1 bit style/structure

I've looked everywhere for this answer or even at least a question like this one (even tom's hardware didn't have anything 'explicitly' related to this). My question is simple: Is there or are there ...
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3answers
151 views

ON/OFF Toggle Switch for a HDD

I've got two hard drives running two different OS. I need both of them, but want to run them on separate drives without dealing with the struggle of switching the cables every time.I suppose cutting ...
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3answers
892 views

Is this system 32 bit or 64 bit? [closed]

I would definitely say that this system is 64 bit but the owner says it's 32. The computer is a Dell Optiplex 960 which comes both in 32 bit and 64 bit versions but I installed windows 8 64 bit ...
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2answers
5k views

Calculating hard disk block model reading time

My professor posted a slide on how to calculate the data retrieval from hard disk using the block model. The specs were: 7200 RPM 5ms SEEK 80MB/s TRANSFER RATE BLOCK MODEL : Block size 4KB I ...
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Cache Organisation

Whats's the difference between Direct Mapping and Four-way Set Associative? They both mean that certain blocks of the cache are associated with certain parts of the main memory. The only difference ...
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1answer
182 views

Which GPUs are real Kepler cores?

With Nvidia's naming scheme I'm having a lot of trouble looking for a card that isn't a repackaged fermi or even older architecture. For example I was looking at the GT640, but the GF116 GPU is ...
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16answers
5k views

Why do computers count from zero?

Computers traditionally tally numerical values starting from zero. For example, arrays in C-based programming languages start from index zero. What historical reasons exist for this, and what ...
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1answer
33 views

Is it possible to see what disk blocks a file uses in Windows 7?

I would like to see what blocks some files are using. I am talking about files being stored on disk, not blocks in memory. Is this possible in Windows 7?
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How does copy and paste for large files work

I am curious to know how computers execute "copy" and "paste" of large folders. I've read that copy and paste of text between different processes or same process is achieved by saving the content into ...
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2answers
136 views

When powering off a computer, what exactly happens?

What exactly goes on when my computer is shut down? Not the "Shut down" button in the Start menu, but instead how the command (maybe machine code or something similar) is issued on a lower-than-OS ...
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1answer
125 views

Why is it possible for me to install either 32 or 64-bit linux on my PC? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Can a 32 bit OS run in a 64 bit processor? I am buying a PC and installing Linux on it. Apparently, I can install either 32 or 64-bit Ubuntu on it. Why is that? I ...
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2answers
103 views

How does playstation work with 256M RAM? [closed]

The 200$ phone I have in my pocket has more RAM than that. I realize that it has a very fast processor. But wouldn't the entire time be spent in transferring the data from secondary storage to RAM? ...
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1answer
400 views

Intel assembler/architecture documentation?

Would anyone know where the best "official" Intel documentation regarding the low level architecture/assembler internals would be? How the ESP works, the various registers- fetching values from RAM ...
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4answers
4k views

How can I find a list of all SSE instructions? What happens if a CPU doesn't support SSE?

So I've been reading about how processors work. Now I'm on the instructions (SSE, SSE2, etc) stuff. (Which is pretty interesting). I have lot of questions (I've been reading this stuff on Wikipedia): ...
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115 views

Does a virtual machine have a virtual machine monitor by definition?

Saw this post but couldn't comment: VM sandboxing- what happens? Is it possible to have a virtual machine (vm) without a virtual machine monitor (vmm)/hypervisor, or if you have one virtual machine ...
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1answer
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VM sandboxing- what happens?

How exactly does VM sandbox? Surely it is still using the same hardware resources and same underlying OS? I dont get why multiple VMs on an OS is safe but multiple applications/processes can be ...
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Trusted Computing Base, independence/can they be aggregated?

If I have a system with one component A and the TCB is {A} and I have another component B with a TCB of {B}, if I were to place the two components together would the new TCB of combined components be ...
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1answer
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Is little-endian still faster on Intel processors or it does not matter if I parse big-endian on intel? [closed]

It used to be in past architectures. Is it still the case? I am reading from the network into byte buffers in Java. Basically, will read bytes on Intel using big-endian instead of little-endian ...
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1answer
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How can data be retrieved from this port?

I saw an image on a social network saying that if your using a public computer do not use the one which has the following port on it as your data can be extracted out. Now I am wondering how can your ...
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Do someone know how to use this 8 GB space in ny computer?

I have same thing from a long time. I want to extend this 8.31 GB to c or d any drive. I tried but I got a error. see reference image. Do someone know how to do this in windows.
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3answers
762 views

How can I cool my computer with oil? [closed]

I have a computer outside its case. All the components are attached and working properly, the problem is that fans don't seem to provide good enough cooling when demanding programs such as high end ...
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0answers
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I'm running 32 bit lubuntu on this spec. Should I be using 64 bit? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: 32-bit vs. 64-bit systems Processor: Intel Core i5 3570K 3.4GHz Socket 1155 6MB Ram: G-Skill 8GB (2x4GB) DDR3 1600Mhz RipjawsX Memory Kit CL9 HDD: old seagate SATA ...
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5answers
2k views

How can computers calculate exponential math without overflow errors?

Studying some RSA encrypt/decrypt methods, I found this article: An Example of the RSA Algorithm It requires this to decrpyt this message The total result of is so big, for a 64-bit/32-bit ...
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2answers
132 views

Cloning a hard drive [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Clone a Hard Disk Content to Another Hard Disk Bit-for-bit copy of hard drive in Windows? There is a hard drive in a laptop. I need to clone it (preferably ...
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1answer
298 views

Is it possible to watch interrupts on Windows?

With my linux box I can do the following to watch interrupts live: watch -n1 "cat /proc/interrupts" Is there a way to do this on Windows systems, especially Windows 7?
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Why can't you have both high instructions per cycle and high clock speed?

The Megahertz Myth became a promotional tactic due to differences between the PC's INTEL 8086 processor and Apple's Rockwell 6502 processor. The 8086 ran at 4.77MHz while the 6502 ran at 1MHz. ...
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2answers
3k views

Tool to retrieve information about which hard-disk is connected to which disk-controller (Windows)?

When servicing servers I often find lots of various disks connected to several HD-controllers. To find and replace a specific disk in a server filled with disks often becomes rather tedious. So the ...
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2answers
349 views

What architectural state is saved during context switch?

What architectural state is saved during context switch? As far as I know, what is saved is the following Set of registers including PC counter TLB (If it is not flushed...) what else ? Memory? ...
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Atomic operation. How does it guarantee consistency from hardware perspective?

Atomic operation. How does it guarantee consistency from hardware perspective ? How is it implemented in HW ? As far as I know, atomic instruction makes sure that when it is executed, no other ...
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Hardware. What is the difference between a port and a bank?

Especially, these days, the distinction between them is very confusing.. For example, NVidia's shared memory is 32-banked, so what they say is in one cycle, 32 data can come out at the same time... ...
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446 views

PCI Express and PSU Watts

I'm not sure if this question belongs here, so please be kind if it doesn't. I just happen to have two question that are related to the same project, that's why I combined them. I'm building a custom ...
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132 views

TLB access in SMT processors

In SMT (simultaneous multithreading) processors in which threads share the TLB, how does the TLB differentiate one thread's access from the other one? Each thread has its own set of pages loaded into ...