Computer architecture refers to various aspects of computer system designs which can affect compatibility, performance, and interfacing. Some issues related to computer architecture can be processor word size, memory bus size, or protocol implementation.

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Is it possible to see what disk blocks a file uses in Windows 7?

I would like to see what blocks some files are using. I am talking about files being stored on disk, not blocks in memory. Is this possible in Windows 7?
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How does copy and paste for large files work

I am curious to know how computers execute "copy" and "paste" of large folders. I've read that copy and paste of text between different processes or same process is achieved by saving the content into ...
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197 views

When powering off a computer, what exactly happens?

What exactly goes on when my computer is shut down? Not the "Shut down" button in the Start menu, but instead how the command (maybe machine code or something similar) is issued on a lower-than-OS ...
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150 views

Why is it possible for me to install either 32 or 64-bit linux on my PC? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Can a 32 bit OS run in a 64 bit processor? I am buying a PC and installing Linux on it. Apparently, I can install either 32 or 64-bit Ubuntu on it. Why is that? I thought ...
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137 views

How does playstation work with 256M RAM? [closed]

The 200$ phone I have in my pocket has more RAM than that. I realize that it has a very fast processor. But wouldn't the entire time be spent in transferring the data from secondary storage to RAM? ...
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461 views

Intel assembler/architecture documentation?

Would anyone know where the best "official" Intel documentation regarding the low level architecture/assembler internals would be? How the ESP works, the various registers- fetching values from RAM ...
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4answers
5k views

How can I find a list of all SSE instructions? What happens if a CPU doesn't support SSE?

So I've been reading about how processors work. Now I'm on the instructions (SSE, SSE2, etc) stuff. (Which is pretty interesting). I have lot of questions (I've been reading this stuff on Wikipedia): ...
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119 views

Does a virtual machine have a virtual machine monitor by definition?

Saw this post but couldn't comment: VM sandboxing- what happens? Is it possible to have a virtual machine (vm) without a virtual machine monitor (vmm)/hypervisor, or if you have one virtual machine ...
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VM sandboxing- what happens?

How exactly does VM sandbox? Surely it is still using the same hardware resources and same underlying OS? I dont get why multiple VMs on an OS is safe but multiple applications/processes can be unsafe?...
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23 views

Trusted Computing Base, independence/can they be aggregated?

If I have a system with one component A and the TCB is {A} and I have another component B with a TCB of {B}, if I were to place the two components together would the new TCB of combined components be ...
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2k views

Is little-endian still faster on Intel processors or it does not matter if I parse big-endian on intel? [closed]

It used to be in past architectures. Is it still the case? I am reading from the network into byte buffers in Java. Basically, will read bytes on Intel using big-endian instead of little-endian ...
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64 views

How can data be retrieved from this port?

I saw an image on a social network saying that if your using a public computer do not use the one which has the following port on it as your data can be extracted out. Now I am wondering how can your ...
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109 views

Do someone know how to use this 8 GB space in ny computer?

I have same thing from a long time. I want to extend this 8.31 GB to c or d any drive. I tried but I got a error. see reference image. Do someone know how to do this in windows.
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I'm running 32 bit lubuntu on this spec. Should I be using 64 bit? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: 32-bit vs. 64-bit systems Processor: Intel Core i5 3570K 3.4GHz Socket 1155 6MB Ram: G-Skill 8GB (2x4GB) DDR3 1600Mhz RipjawsX Memory Kit CL9 HDD: old seagate SATA from ...
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5answers
3k views

How can computers calculate exponential math without overflow errors?

Studying some RSA encrypt/decrypt methods, I found this article: An Example of the RSA Algorithm It requires this to decrpyt this message The total result of is so big, for a 64-bit/32-bit machine,...
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2answers
142 views

Cloning a hard drive [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Clone a Hard Disk Content to Another Hard Disk Bit-for-bit copy of hard drive in Windows? There is a hard drive in a laptop. I need to clone it (preferably bit-for-bit) ...
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1answer
363 views

Is it possible to watch interrupts on Windows?

With my linux box I can do the following to watch interrupts live: watch -n1 "cat /proc/interrupts" Is there a way to do this on Windows systems, especially Windows 7?
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Why can't you have both high instructions per cycle and high clock speed?

The Megahertz Myth became a promotional tactic due to differences between the PC's INTEL 8086 processor and Apple's Rockwell 6502 processor. The 8086 ran at 4.77MHz while the 6502 ran at 1MHz. ...
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5k views

Tool to retrieve information about which hard-disk is connected to which disk-controller (Windows)?

When servicing servers I often find lots of various disks connected to several HD-controllers. To find and replace a specific disk in a server filled with disks often becomes rather tedious. So the ...
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433 views

What architectural state is saved during context switch?

What architectural state is saved during context switch? As far as I know, what is saved is the following Set of registers including PC counter TLB (If it is not flushed...) what else ? Memory? (...
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2answers
1k views

How does an atomic operation guarantee consistency from a hardware perspective?

As far as I know, an atomic instruction makes sure that when it is executed, no other threads can modify that data (just like a critical section). Am I correct? How is this implemented in hardware? ...
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3answers
327 views

Hardware. What is the difference between a port and a bank?

Especially, these days, the distinction between them is very confusing.. For example, NVidia's shared memory is 32-banked, so what they say is in one cycle, 32 data can come out at the same time... ...
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579 views

PCI Express and PSU Watts

I'm not sure if this question belongs here, so please be kind if it doesn't. I just happen to have two question that are related to the same project, that's why I combined them. I'm building a custom ...
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1answer
156 views

TLB access in SMT processors

In SMT (simultaneous multithreading) processors in which threads share the TLB, how does the TLB differentiate one thread's access from the other one? Each thread has its own set of pages loaded into ...
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2answers
136 views

Switch harddrive to different computer

I have an older amd system with a harddrive that has a fedora install on it. I have a newer intel system with a windows 7 install. Would I be able to put the old drive into the new machine and make ...
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275 views

What does R stand for in Von Neumann Architecture?

I would like some examples of modern day equipment that would equate with the 'R' in Von Neumann architecture. I am referring to Section 2.6 on page 3 of the PDF version of the "First Draft of a ...
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4k views

Why using hexadecimal in computer is better than using octal?

What are benefits that hexadecimal provides? And is it really octal is less common than hexadecimal?
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5answers
440 views

The idea that “nothing is ever truly deleted” doesn't make sense to me [closed]

Why do people say that nothing is ever truly deleted? Let's say I have a byte in my hard drive that contains the byte 0x00. If I overwrite it with the byte 0x01, how can anyone ever know that it ever ...
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1answer
5k views

How do hardware interrupts work compared to software interrupts?

To give you an impression of the level of detail I'm interested, one example. I know a system call ultimately leads to a trap which lets the processor store registers, switch to supervisor mode and ...
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2answers
1k views

Instruction per Cycle vs Increased Cycle Count

Increasing either instruction per cycle or increase cycle count both are valid design choice for processor manufactures. I understand theory, but it would be much clearer if I had some real life ...
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2answers
659 views

What type(s) of performance improvements to expect between architectures using QPI versus a FSB?

While comparing Intel's two new i7 processors, I noticed that the only difference between them apart from the L3 cache size and CPU speed is that one has QuickPath Interconnect, and that seems to ...
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765 views

Will a new processor with slower clockspeed run legacy applications faster?

I'm using Linux and have an old P4 with about 3 GHz clock speed. Will a newer chip that had slower clock speed run my legacy applications faster or slower? I only use one application at a time, an ...
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394 views

Are super computers made with just cache technology?

I was reading about memory hierarchy and I read that you can built a computer with just cache but it wouldn't be cost effective. I was wonderig if super computers are made with only cache technology?
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Front Side Bus and RAM speed

We encouted an odd question during a Cisco IT Esstenials course which didn't make sense. Which memory module has a front side bus speed of 200 MHz Possible choices were DDR-333 DDR-400 DDR3-...
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443 views

How to figure out the internal organization of my laptop

I am learning about buses and I/O. I want to figure out the various buses and the devices, controllers connected to it in my laptop. The website of my motherboard does not have a tech-spec. Neither ...
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4answers
1k views

Why can't memory clock speeds be as fast as the CPU speed?

I was reading that in old i386 based systems, the ram bus used to be the same speed as the CPU but when CPU frequencies increased, it became too hard to make RAM the same speed. Why can't we have 2GHz ...
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3answers
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Virtual memory vs. Virtual address space

I know virtual memory is a paging file that computer uses to store a part of RAM on hard disk for a running process. But how different is Virtual address space? is it the RAM or hard disk or both?
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Is a higher core count or higher clock speed more beneficial to a computer's performance? [closed]

With lowering silicon costs and rising consumer needs, manufacturers seem to be pushing one of two things: clock speed and/or core count. With the way things are going, it doesn't seem that clock ...
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3answers
125 views

Run 10 sets of headphones from a pc via 10 separate channels

We have a PC application that runs on Windows 7 platform that is designed to play sound to up to 10 different MP3's to up to 10 separate sound cards (ie. 10 different inputs playing to 10 different ...
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121 views

Processor Multimedia Extensions. How Useful are they actually? [closed]

Ever since the original Pentium, both AMD and Intel have been releasing competing multimedia extensions to their architectures, mmx, 3DNOW!, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4, AVX, XOP... So many, that I ...
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2answers
17k views

what differences and relations are between logical and virtual memory?

I was wondering what differences and relations are between logical and virtual memory? How do their purposes differ? Are the relations and differences the same for logical and virtual addresses?
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4answers
6k views

Understanding “Flat memory model” and “Segmented memory model”

I am trying to understand Flat memory model and Segmented memory model. Are Flat memory model and Segmented memory model determined by CPU architecture or OS or both? Or are they not determined by ...
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2answers
2k views

Is the size of a memory address and size of the address bus related?

My questions are about the relation between the size of an actual/physical address and the size of the address bus. If I understand correctly, the actual/physical address size is determined during ...
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3answers
8k views

What do the terms “asynchronous” and “synchronous” mean, with respect to the definition of an interrupt?

Quoted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interrupt: an interrupt is an asynchronous signal indicating the need for attention or a synchronous event in software indicating the need for a change ...
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2answers
704 views

Northbridge + Southbridge = Unitedbridge? Is the division likely to persist? [closed]

Okay, hardware based question. I was at shopping for laptops the other day and one of the salespeople was trying to talk up an integrated graphics system as opposed to a discrete graphics system. He ...
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15k views

How do I interpret the specification of memory (RAM)?

When looking at memory there are a few specifications that I don't understand and was hoping to have clarification on. What do these terms mean, and how do they affect the systems performance? Feel ...
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628 views

Intel's AES-NI performance: Isn't the hard drive the bottleneck?

Will I see a performance gain with AES-NI using dm-crypt/LUKS for hard drive system encryption? Isn't the hard drive the bottleneck even without hardware acceleration?
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19answers
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Can some software physically damage hardware?

I know a question similar to this one has been asked before however it was about installing a 32bit OS on a 64bit laptop. My question is more about damaging the hardware. I was wondering if there was ...
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25k views

How does a CPU 'know' what commands and instructions actually mean?

How does a processor 'know' what the different commands mean? I'm thinking of assembly level commands like MOV, PUSH, CALL, etc...
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2answers
565 views

Bits of CPU, architecture and OS

I was wondering if the bits of OS, of instruction set, of CPU registers, of data bus from CPU to memory, and of address bus from CPU to memory must be consistent in some sense and how? When we cay ...