Computer architecture refers to various aspects of computer system designs which can affect compatibility, performance, and interfacing. Some issues related to computer architecture can be processor word size, memory bus size, or protocol implementation.

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Recovery of data from hard disk

Let's assume I have consumed 100% space of HDD with 3 movies (A,B,C) Now i have deleted A,B,C and filled 100% space of HDD with movies (D,E,F) can i recover the files A,B,C from the hard-disk? PS: ...
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Is disk read/write speed affected by processor architecture? [closed]

I am not sure what effect if any a 32 bit vs 64 bit architecture processor has on disk read/write speed. I believe that a 64 bit processor can address more main memory than 32 bit processor without ...
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Is the PCH part of the PCIe Root Complex?

I always thought that the CPU and the PCH together make up the Root Complex, because both contain Root Ports and therefore are connecting PCIe devices to CPU and memory, but yesterday I read this ...
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what differences and relations are between logical and virtual memory?

I was wondering what differences and relations are between logical and virtual memory? How do their purposes differ? Are the relations and differences the same for logical and virtual addresses?
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79 views

Average time to read a single sector (disk)

If there is a magnetic disk as following: Average seek time: 12 ms Rotation rate: 3600 RPM Transfer rate: 3.5 MB/second Number of sectors per track: 64 Sector size: 512 bytes Controller ...
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How does increasing the number of transistors in a chip increase its speed

Is the only purpose of transistors in a cpu to act as the switches that define its instruction set? And if so then why does increasing the number of transistors increase its speed?
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68 views

Why a disk drive could not be connected (physically) to 2+ computers?

A friend of mine if a disk drive could be connected to more than one computer and I jumped directly to the "no" answer, but I realized that pretty much any inconvenient I could think of would be easy ...
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28 views

Why do uname -p and uname -m and arch output different architectures?

On mountain lion (late 2010) $ uname -p i386 $ uname -m x86_64 $ arch i386 So i368 (32 bit) is my processor architecture, and x86_64 (64 bit) is my machine hardware name according to the uname man ...
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understanding CPU,RAM,and Hard Disk Drive [duplicate]

I'm currently reading about how the computer works, specifically how the CPU, RAM, hard disk drive work together simultaneously. According to what I have read, the CPU uses what is called a control ...
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18 views

What is the state of the art in hardware for data error correction?

A decade (or more) ago when shopping for RAM one often had the option of specifying "server-grade" memory with an extra Error Correction Code (ECC). I haven't seen that as an explicit option in ...
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Is a higher core count or higher clock speed more beneficial to a computer's performance? [closed]

With lowering silicon costs and rising consumer needs, manufacturers seem to be pushing one of two things: clock speed and/or core count. With the way things are going, it doesn't seem that clock ...
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121 views

TLB access in SMT processors

In SMT (simultaneous multithreading) processors in which threads share the TLB, how does the TLB differentiate one thread's access from the other one? Each thread has its own set of pages loaded into ...
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25 views

Why is cache leakage power consumption higher than other hardware units?

Is it correct that caches (SRAM cells) have higher leakage power compared to other hardware units with the same area such as ALU? And if so, why is the case?
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Can some software physically damage hardware?

I know a question similar to this one has been asked before however it was about installing a 32bit OS on a 64bit laptop. My question is more about damaging the hardware. I was wondering if there was ...
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4answers
85 views

Is Modern Computers based on Von Neumann Model?

I read it on the Foundation of Computer Science(by Behrouz A. Forouzan) textbook that a Von Neumann model's program must execute sequentially and the modern computer execute code in the order that's ...
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3k views

Tool to retrieve information about which hard-disk is connected to which disk-controller (Windows)?

When servicing servers I often find lots of various disks connected to several HD-controllers. To find and replace a specific disk in a server filled with disks often becomes rather tedious. So the ...
5
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180 views

32-bit to 64-bit skipping 48-bit?

Computer architecture upgraded from 16-bit to 32-bit to 64-bit. What was the logic for skipping 48-bit? What reasoning was used to upgrade to 64-bit and not some other exponent? The following tables ...
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348 views

PCI BAR memory addresses

Quick question, I was reading the OSDev Wiki page regarding PCI and it says the following - Base address Registers (or BARs) can be used to hold memory addresses used by the device, or offsets for ...
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What is the maximum amount of ram a 64bit machine can theoretically address?

I'm reading through my computer architecture book and I see that in an x86, 32bit CPU, the program counter is 32 bit. So, the number of bytes it can address is 2^32 bytes, or 4GB. So it makes sense ...
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How does a USB external graphics card work?

I am interested in extending my multi-monitor setup, but I was wondering if anyone could shed a light on how external USB graphics cards work? I have extensively searched but have not found an ...
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How to find the architecture of OS installed?

I'm using Core 2 Duo. So, from Intel website I found that it is 64-bit architecture CPU. Long back I've installed Ubuntu OS on this machine. But I'm not sure if I installed x86-32 or x86-64 version ...
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113 views

Does a virtual machine have a virtual machine monitor by definition?

Saw this post but couldn't comment: VM sandboxing- what happens? Is it possible to have a virtual machine (vm) without a virtual machine monitor (vmm)/hypervisor, or if you have one virtual machine ...
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Where exactly L1, L2 and L3 Caches located in computer?

Where exactly L1, L2 and L3 Caches Located in computer ? I know, we use Cache to increase performance by picking DATA and INSTRUCTIONS from Cache rather than Main Memory. Following are my questions ...
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How to check my RAM configuration (Windows 7)?

I would like to check my RAM configuration. I know it is easy to check the total RAM installed on a computer (eg 32 GB), but is there an easy way to check in Windows if the RAM is e.g. 2x16 GB, 4x8 ...
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156 views

x86 i386 i686 amd64 i5 i7 archtecture processor confusion

I noticed those items x86, i386, i686, amd64, i5, i7, archtecture, processor from the web, from my own notebook, from book readings. But I am really confused by those terminologies. I try my best ...
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72 views

Difference between “network RAM” and “distributed shared memory” (DSM)

What is the difference between "network RAM" and "distributed shared memory" (DSM)? Basically, I know that both of them provide a shared storage on RAM among all the systems in a cluster. So, what is ...
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982 views

Formatting a PC without admin rights

I was at a flea market the other day and bought a computer. However, the computer is locked and I can't login to it. Is there a way to format the computer and install Linux on it? It seems like the ...
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Why using hexadecimal in computer is better than using octal?

What are benefits that hexadecimal provides? And is it really octal is less common than hexadecimal?
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33 views

Calculating RPM of the disk drive

Well I have a question about RPM of the disk drive. I've seen an example where: seek time of the HD: 5ms track size: 5MB If an application wants to read 1MB from the disk with a maximum time of 20ms ...
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1answer
44 views

What architecture to choose with 2 GB of RAM in the computer [closed]

I have 2 GB RAM in my laptop. I want to install Window 7 Ultimate but I don't know which architecture to choose - 32 bit or 64 bit.
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202 views

Doing some detective work on old computer hardware [closed]

On a recent holiday to Bangkok, I visited the science museum and planetarium that is there. While eating lunch I was very surprised to see some very recognisable vintage computer equipment in almost ...
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173 views

Difference between “system-on-chip” and “CPU”

Very confused, in some websites, they have this line: iPhone 5s CPU: Apple A7 other websites saying that: iPhone 5s System-on-chip: Apple 7 CPU: 1.3 GHz 64bit dual core other sources saying ...
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335 views

How mouse button re-mappings work?

I installed my new mouse (Anker 2000 DPI Wireless) and then the driver which installs a program named '5-button mouse' that allows me to remap what each button does, standard stuff and everything ...
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why are RAM chips independent of whether my system is a 32bit system or 64 bit system?

I was recently out to buy a 4 GB RAM chip for my laptop, and all they asked me was whether I wanted DDR-3? When I specified that I had a 64 bit system, they said that it's not important, my question ...
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Is parallelism in computer science always directly tied to the number of processor cores?

Specific to the Java programming language, would it be accurate to say that two threads can be concurrent, but can only truly be run in parallel if there are two or more cores?
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561 views

How do modern smartphones compare to Apollo mission computers? [closed]

I saw an article some time ago that compared smartphones to the computers that had put mankind on the moon. I can't remember the exact comparison and I can't find an accurate comparison online, as ...
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295 views

How BIOS extensions (option ROMs) work?

How do BIOS extensions (option ROMs) work? I understand that an installed device may have it's own BIOS that adds features to the system but I'm not sure of how they are set up. I keep reading the ...
4
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1answer
987 views

Whats the difference between physical and virtual cache?

I am having trouble understanding what virtual cache actually is. I understand virtual memory. If the CPU wants to access memory, as far as I understand, it sends a virtual address to the MMU which, ...
4
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1answer
203 views

Why can't PCIe devices share lanes?

On older chip-sets it was not possible to have a dedicated graphics card in the PEG slot and have the Integrated Graphics Device (IGD) enabled at the same time. After looking online I found this was ...
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What do the terms “asynchronous” and “synchronous” mean, with respect to the definition of an interrupt?

Quoted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interrupt: an interrupt is an asynchronous signal indicating the need for attention or a synchronous event in software indicating the need for a change ...
2
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1answer
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How are reserved and ACPI NVS memory sizes counted?

My PC has 8GB of memory installed and is running Win 7 64-bit. I ran a tool named fwmemmap that shows the firmware memory map for the system but it's showing around 60MB more than is physically ...
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where and How the computer/mobile phone time and date stored

i tried something, i noted down the current time within my laptop(dell.. win 7) it was 12.15 PM 5 April 2014, and i did the same with my mobile phone(samsung galaxy s2, andriod jelly bean) it was ...
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50 views

Harvard Architecture : How does it improve speed?

I don't understand the difference between Von Neumann and Harvard architectures. Let's say you have these two instructions : MOV ax, [address2] MOV bx, ax In Harvard architecture, the processor ...
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26 views

How are graphics produced on the screen?

I have been trying to get a complete answer to this for a long time and I know it is complex. For example lets say we wanted to produce the character 'H' on the screen. H is 72 in ascii or 48 in Hex ...
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9answers
33k views

How can I determine whether my processor is 32-bit or 64-bit?

How can I determine whether my processor is 32-bit or 64-bit? My processor is AMD Phenom 8450 triple-core.
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2answers
51 views

How does fabrication process and compiler quality affect CPU performance

I was reading up on my lectures and one of the slides listed down the factors affecting CPU performance , I cant understand how does fabrication process and compiler quality affect CPU performance
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666 views

What is the difference between primary and secondary bootloader?

What is the difference between primary and secondary bootloader? Does primary and secondary refer to the two parts of the bootloader or two stages of the bootloader? I am confused.
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Physically moving a hard drive from older iMac (c2d) to new iMac (i7)?

Instead of my usual habit of using superduper to mirror my drive to a new computer, I just physically moved the hard drive from an older iMac to a new one. But... it now doesn't boot, getting stuck at ...
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Difference between cache memory and register?

What is the difference between cache memory and registers?I know them by definition but why do we need the other when we have any one of them?
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How does an instruction in a CPU report that is has finished?

When an instruction is sent to a CPU, that may take multiple clock cycles to complete, when does the CPU know that the instruction has finished and can start processing the next one? I'm mostly ...