The main component of most operating systems, the kernel manages most of a computer's communication between hardware and software. Typically, the kernel is the lowest level of abstraction a programmer can have to a resource.

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What is there in an Operating System other than the kernel

As I understand it, the kernel does all the interaction with the hardware, and manages the memory, the I/O devices, etc. So the kernel is doing everything, yet it is just a part of the operating ...
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5answers
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How can a linux kernel be so small?

An ordinary stable 3* kernel is about 70 mb now. But there are little linux distributions of 30-10 mb with software and other stuff running out of the box. How can the linux kernel be so small in ...
22
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2answers
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Is it possible to compile a Darwin Distro from source, like you can a build a Linux Distro?

I have read through and undertaken Linux From Scratch (and BLFS) and I was wondering, can I follow this guide to create a Darwin Distro by substituting the xnu kernel? Would the process be vastly ...
15
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5answers
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Is kernel a process?

In Linux, we always say the first process is init(pid==1). but why is not the kernel(startup) which setup the system and create init process. Is kernel a process? We know all the user space threads ...
12
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2answers
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Obtain kernel config from currently running Linux system?

I accidentally deleted my .config for my kernel configuration on Linux, and seem to remember there was a way to retrieve the kernel configuration via the proc filesystem somehow. Is this still ...
10
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4answers
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Killing wininit.exe shuts down Windows

When I kill wininit.exe, Windows 7 suddenly shuts down. Can someone explain this using Windows mechanics? I feel like this might because the process provides something important, or this might be a ...
10
votes
2answers
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how to know if noatime or relatime is default mount option in kernel?

I was trying to know if relatime or noatime was set on a filesystem, but i didn't found the information, neither in /etc/fstab, neither in kernel boot options. First of all, it seems clear that i ...
9
votes
4answers
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How do I know if my linux kernel is running in 32bit or 64bit?

When I do a cat in /proc/cpuinfo it shows a line with clflushsize : 64 Does this mean my kernel is running in 64 bits?
9
votes
5answers
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Linux distro with just busybox and bash?

I just want a linux distro that boots fast, has a bash terminal (no gui) and busybox. Is there any such distro or is it hard to compile a kernel and just make one myself?
9
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2answers
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Discover linux kernel boot options

Is there a cross-distribution way to know the boot parameters supplied to the kernel?
9
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7answers
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Any reason not to disable Windows kernel paging?

So I'm planning on eventually going to 2 GB (mobo max) RAM from 1 GB, and I want to disable kernel paging once I do, because I've heard it can give a performance boost (and that I believe). Any reason ...
9
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0answers
398 views

How does rebooting a computer work? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: How does a computer restart itself? How does a computer's reboot command actually work? How is the computer told that it shouldn't stay down after powering off, and ...
8
votes
6answers
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Why does my Mac OS X 10.6 kernel run in 32-bit mode?

I have a MacBook Pro (5,1) with 4GB of memory running 10A432 - but it's running the 32-bit kernel. Any ideas why it wouldn't be running in 64-bit mode, and how I can get it to do so?
8
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7answers
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Where is vmlinux on my Ubuntu installation?

I'm trying to work with starting up oprofile, and I'm running into a problem at this step: opcontrol --vmlinux=/path/to/vmlinux Ubuntu has no package called vmlinux, and when I do a locate vmlinux, ...
8
votes
3answers
5k views

Kernel NTFS driver vs NTFS-3G

A more comprehensive phrased question since I lost access to the other one. I would ask that the other one be deleted, not this one, as it should not have been migrated in the first place. There are ...
8
votes
2answers
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Make grub keep its default boot under kernel updates

I dual-boot my machine and I want it to default to boot into windows so that whenever I restart the machine remotely from my home it will be able to get back into Windows (instead of Ubuntu). The ...
8
votes
1answer
214 views

Which files are cached by linux?

I understand that linux uses unused RAM to keep some files cached. But I wonder, which files it actually caches! If you take a look at free : Gesamt Belegt Frei Gemeinsam Puffer Cached Speicher: ...
7
votes
2answers
1k views

Allow non-root process to bind to port 80 and 443?

Is it possible to tune a kernel parameter to allow a userland program to bind to port 80 and 443? The reason I ask is I think its foolish to allow a privileged process to open a socket and listen. ...
7
votes
4answers
15k views

Arch Linux - How do I downgrade my kernel?

I just did a system upgrade which included my kernel. After which, my wifi has broken. After some google'ing, it seems I'm not the only person this has happened to. RT2860 drivers don't play nicely ...
6
votes
2answers
6k views

Advantages of Ubuntu LTS versions over regular Ubuntu?

Do the LTS versions of Ubuntu have any advantages for the non-paying customers (who don't get any support?) From the tech spec only, these versions seem outdated in many aspects - mainly drivers and ...
6
votes
3answers
1k views

Kernel and User mode distinguishing

Who is responsible for determining that the process is in the Kernel mode or User mode? I know kernel knows which process is belong to what space, but how the CPU determines that? I mean should CPU be ...
6
votes
2answers
904 views

Is there any benefit to running OSX (Snow Leopard) in 64 bit mode?

I know I can force it to boot into 64-bit kernel by holding down the 6 and 4 keys during the boot process. I also know that some extensions still don't run in 64-bit mode. So the question is what ...
6
votes
1answer
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What is and how to increase the maximum number of usb devices?

I'm wondering what is the maximum number of USB devices the Linux kernel can manage? Does this depend on the root-Hub or something else, too? Is there a way to increase this maximum number? I need ...
6
votes
1answer
2k views

How can I enable kernel crash dumps in Debian?

I want to enable kernel crash dumps for my Debian 5.0.7 machine. The kernel version is 2.2.26 amd64. How can I configure this?
6
votes
1answer
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How to benchmark kernel (-Os vs -O2)

It seems logical to me that on a 64-bit kernel compiling it to optimize for size might help overall. (My distro of choice uses -O2) It has the benefits of more registers and memory and perhaps less ...
6
votes
1answer
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How do I analyze excessive Windows kernel mode CPU usage?

My Windows XP machine recently started to semi freeze on me every odd reboot after a few minutes of usage (different programs / no additional prg start at all). Update: I have now managed to get a ...
6
votes
1answer
247 views

Stronger laptop_mode in Linux

Can I have stronger laptop mode in Linux? I want to spin down the hard drive and prevent it to spin up even if something wants to read something not in cache. In general I want to have these modes: ...
5
votes
5answers
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Linux equivalent to Mac OS X's fs_usage

Is there a Linux equivalent to the Mac OS X command fs_usage? According to the man page it does the following: "report system calls and page faults related to filesystem activity in real-time". I ...
5
votes
3answers
1k views

How to save or export a custom Linux kernel configuration

I downloaded a Linux Kernel from www.kernel.org, then I used menuconfig to customize it. After a lot of customizing it works just like I need it to, and I don't want to loose this actual ...
5
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4answers
181 views

Does the kernel process need to save something when switching to user mode? [closed]

According to my professor, "while switching from user mode to kernel mode, the status of the user process has to be saved completely. But when switching from kernel mode to user mode, nothing has ...
5
votes
5answers
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How to add a new kernel to grub2

How can we add a kernel to grub2? i knew the stuff we could do with the former versions, but it seems to have changed. What files should we edit?
5
votes
2answers
4k views

Compiling the Linux kernel, how much size is needed?

I have downloaded the newest most stable Linux kernel, 2.6.33.2. I thought I would test this using VirtualBox. So I create a dynamically sized harddisk of 4 GB. And installed CentOS 5.3 with just the ...
5
votes
2answers
191 views

Boot windows 7 from a disk image of custom format

Windows 7 has an ability to boot from alternative sources besides plain disk partitions - for example it can boot natively from VHD or WIM. Is the handling of above mentioned formats hardcoded into ...
4
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2answers
303 views

device driver and kernel

Are device drivers part of a OS kernel, or outside the kernel, or some are part of the kernel and others are outside the kernel? If the third is correct, what devices' drivers are usually part of ...
4
votes
2answers
853 views

Advantages of using the bleeding edge Linux kernel

I have AMD Athlon 3500+ (x86_64) CPU and I am okay with the Ubuntu package maintainer's kernel version (as of now it is 2.6.35-24-generic). What will I gain if I update to latest stable kernel ...
4
votes
5answers
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In linux, what would happen to a running program when it's executable file has been modified, or deleted

Let's say /usr/local/bin/ruby is running in the background, and then we overwrite ruby with a different version, or even delete ruby. What will happen to those running ruby processes?
4
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2answers
646 views

Why do Linux installers install more than one kernel?

For instance, my boot menu has three kernel versions, each with a recovery option. Are these extra options for debugging and troubleshooting?
4
votes
2answers
927 views

Automatic linux-headers installation

Is there a way to get the matching Linux kernel headers automatic on a regular kernel update via the Ubuntu packed manager? Every time I get a new kernel I must do an aptitude install ...
4
votes
2answers
2k views

Where's windows kernel file?

What computer file contains windows kernel? is it seen in task manager process list? if not, why?
4
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2answers
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What is Kernel Memory? What function does it serve?

While looking at my Task Manager on Windows, I noticed a little thing marked "Kernel Memory." What exactly is this? And what function does it serve compared to the Physical Memory?
4
votes
1answer
954 views

How do I digitally sign a 64-bit kernel mode driver?

I have a kernel mode driver and I have to install it on 64 bit win 7. It needs to be digitally signed. I digitally signed it using the dseo13b.exe. But when I load the driver I get error in the system ...
4
votes
2answers
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How to make bootable USB with Linux Kernel alone?

I would like to boot the Linux kernel alone and run busybox, not including a GUI. How can I do that? How can I make a custom bzImage, initrd.img and how can I change the file structures in that ...
4
votes
3answers
401 views

where does Kernel reside on a multi-core system

Suppose I have a multi-core system, say 4 cores, and in this I pin 3 user process to a 3 CPU's. In such a case, where will the kernel reside? Suppose one of the user process make a system call, or ...
4
votes
4answers
339 views

Home wireless router as a PC

Is it possible to install a small program on a cheap home router that runs a Linux kernel and run it? I mean can I use a router that runs a Linux OS as a small computer to run arbitrary code on it? ...
4
votes
4answers
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Error while validating for Ubuntu 12.10 Kernel headers

I have my VMware Player (v 5.0.0 build-812388) all up and running Ubuntu (12.10) from my Windows (Win 7) machine. When I launch sudo vmware-config-tools.pl, it tries to search for kernel Searching ...
4
votes
3answers
495 views

Pipe kernel messages to another process as they occur

I have an OLED screen on my laptop that I have configured to show status information. The current driver I have installed in Linux for it is able to display messages by sending them to a script as an ...
4
votes
2answers
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Linux Kernel Messages: ata1.00: status: { DRDY ERR }

I am receiving a lot of these messages. Is my HD going to die tomorrow morning? ata1: link is slow to respond, please be patient (ready=0) ata1: device not ready (errno=-16), forcing hardreset ata1: ...
4
votes
1answer
189 views

Why is there an extra HDD under /dev being added in my Linux Kernel?

I have created a Linux kernel and for some reason an extra drive is always added at bootup. My hard drive is listed as /dev/sdb. /dev/sda is created too, and it is 8 MB in size. I can't find ...
4
votes
1answer
262 views

FreeBSD compatibility layer on Linux

I am aware of Linux mode on FreeBSD, where Linux binaries can seamlessly be executed in FreeBSD. From the FreeBSD handbook: In effect, there is a Linux kernel in the FreeBSD kernel. The various ...
4
votes
1answer
528 views

Where did SELinux go?

I am compiling a new kernel, and want to enable SELinux but don't see it in menuconfig anywhere. The only framework under security options is Tomoyo.....so I ask, what happened to SELinux? Both ...