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Upon reading the manpage further, I've solved the problem. -w does indeed do a single pass, with a pass consisting of four test patterns. This can be overriden using the -t option: -t test_pattern Specify a test pattern to be read (and written) to disk blocks. The test_pattern may either be a numeric value between 0 and ULONG_MAX-1 inclusive, or ...


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What you're seeing is not multiple passes, it's multiple test patterns within a single pass. The -w option runs a single pass by default, and you can specify additional passes with the -p option. However, a single pass with the -w option tests four different patterns: 0xaa, 0x55, 0xff, 0x00. You can override this with the -t option, to specifiy your own ...


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The flash drive is failing and should be replaced. The most likely cause of this issue is flash memory that is wearing out. Flash memory has limited endurance and USB flash drives tend to use lower-grade NAND which has lower endurance than the types found in SSDs. See: Can a USB thumb drive "wear out"? This problem cannot be resolved by the end user. The ...


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How do I fix it? Just buy a new one. Flash drives are cheap, especially 8 GB ones. Sometimes such drives can be salvaged by low-level formatting with appropriate tools, but these are very rare cases and the fix isn't permanent. Failing parts of flash drive often indicate that its overall state will be getting worse because of flash teardown.


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I had good results from otherwise unreadable disks with this software. http://www.cgsecurity.org/wiki/TestDisk This next one is a solid recovery tool as well. It can get files even if your file table is broken or if they were deleted. It's a damn good forensics tool. It dumps things in a really unorganized way, but you can get all of the data moved. ...


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There are thousands of system files. A substantial number are irrelevant (support for languages and hardware that don't apply to you, etc.). If it was any of those, you might never know it. Many of the files are things you might use only occasionally, if at all (fonts, utilities, diagnostics, wizards, certain services, etc.). It could be a long time ...


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You cant escape entropy. Everything will eventually fail, including hard drives on any kind of servers. They will get bad sectors, their power supplies will fail, everything will eventually break. However, servers and their components, are often built with more robust - and expensive - parts than your standard desktop. Even their hard drives are made ...


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The HDD does what you are describing automatically when it discovers a bad sector (until it runs out of spares). If you want to force it to scan for (and handle), bad sectors rather than wait for them to be discovered, chkdsk /r will do that. After you run chkdsk /r, additional bad sectors should be extremely rare on a drive that is not in the process of ...


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A long time ago hard drives did not have spare sectors or advanced firmware that did much more than read/write the disk. This was around the time that hard drives were "full-height" (the height of 2 CD-ROMs) and came with a "defect table" sticker which identified bad sectors on the disk from the factory. So filesystem support for identifying bad sectors ...


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If data preservation is your aim, get a new disk as soon as possible. You will, of course, already have at least 2 separate backups of the data anyway! There is software that is aimed at preserving data on drives with problems. Unfortunately, the majority of it is not free. Spinrite from grc.com will do very thorough scans of your drive resetting data ...


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They will be left alone since they have been marked as bad by the hard disk controller firmware. There is software that will reset bad sectors (Spinrite for example) if it can. But the standard drive handling simply assumes that a problem seen once may indicate worse problems ahead - a not unreasonable assumption. If you are seeing bad sectors appear on a ...


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First for the software to use: you could try using ddrescue instead of dd. ddrescue has a switch to do only a limited number of retries. It can also use a logfile, so it records which blocks were bad. If you later feel like doing more retries, you can use the same logfile to run ddrescue again with different options (like more retries) and it will retrie ...



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