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Today, random-access memory takes the form of integrated circuits. RAM is normally associated with volatile types of memory (such as DRAM memory modules), where stored information is lost if power is removed, although many efforts have been made to develop non-volatile RAM chips. Other types of non-volatile memory exist that allow random access for read operations, but either do not allow write operations or have limitations on them. These include most types of ROM and a type of flash memory called NOR-Flash.

Some examples of memory are as follows:

  • RAM (Random Access Memory)
  • ROM (Read Only Memory)
  • EEPROM (Electronically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory)

In contrast, direct-access data storage media types include technologies such as

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