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28

They're what you call "service accounts" and they're used for separation of privileges (so mysql can't read files it doesn't own, for example). They can't be logged into interactively because of the /bin/false entry. Instead, they are just used for access to the appropriate files.


17

I've been doing Internet tech support for a decade. Proper answer is, "I can help you with that. Can you clarify something for me? Do you mean you cannot get any web pages or email, or that are you having trouble with a particular item?"


16

I think this not only covers fixing a computer, but figuring out how to do any kind of advanced concept. This is honestly the approach I take for every piece of software it seems. Even advanced users will follow the same chart. The only difference is that they're better at googling, and for help, they ask SuperUser.com


15

These accounts are used to run services in the background. Your linux system will have a range of application doing a range of tasks in the background, as you correctly identified SQL is one such service. In order for these services to carry out activities it must have a user attached. In order to preserve the security of your system these tasks cannot be ...


13

Try the w command. On my system I have the following: # w 02:16:53 up 6:48, 2 users, load average: 0.50, 0.42, 0.52 USER TTY FROM LOGIN@ IDLE JCPU PCPU WHAT pcm tty7 :0 19:28 6:48m 16:07 0.17s gnome-session pcm pts/0 :0.0 01:51 0.00s 0.36s 0.76s gnome-terminal # uptime ...


12

Do a few exit commands. Your su root started a subshell where you're root, and your su user started another. Typing exit will end those subshells and bring you back where you started -- one level deep.


9

Since you are asking two questions, I'll answer both. Why doesn't tab autocomplete file paths? Because you shell either doesn't support it, or tab completion isn't turned on. To resolve this, you first need to discover what your shell is. On the machine whose shell you enjoy, run echo $SHELL You may see the common /bin/bash, or something less common ...


9

If I understand your question properly, you're asking why must an svn user be created for svn, and a www-data user created for apache, etc. Correct? The reason is for security. The basic concept at play is called "isolation," and is a common practice. The main basic idea is that if each service runs as its own user, then if there is ever a security flaw ...


8

At the kernel level, group membership is a property of each process. Unless it has the appropriate capability (CAP_SETGID if I'm not mistaken), i.e. root privileges for all intents and purposes, a process cannot belong to a new group. A user does not exist as an object at the kernel level; only processes (and files) do. A process has a uid (effective and ...


7

The most common I've run across is that non-computer people think computers are smart. The 'smartest' computer on the planet is 1000 times dumber than the dumbest dog. A computer does what it's told, but a dog can learn. Well, not my dog, but everyone else's ;-) I typically explain that a computer is like a cookbook that knows how to bake its own cakes. ...


6

You just need to change the prompt. You can use the following command: export PS1="\u@\h \w: " I personally prefer the following as my prompt, but that's just me: export PS1="[\u@\h \w]\$ " You can prevent your prompt from changing by adding the statement to the relevant bashrc files. See also Bash Shell PS1: 10 Examples to Make Your Linux Prompt ...


6

Pick an analogy that they are familiar with. For example most people drive a car, or at least ride in a car. So you can use the number of lanes on a highway as an analogy to bandwidth. The data packets are cars. Just a few cars and many lanes available, traffic will move very quickly. Add too many cars or reduce the number of lanes and traffic slows down.


6

These users are not interactive users in the traditional sense, but users that run services on your box. as such you cannot easily log in as those users, nor should you. The accounts are either password-less (login disabled) or have a randomly generated password. Passwordless accounts can be invoked by root (usually at boot) using su to run the actual ...


5

su switches users by spawning a new (sub)shell. So when you logged in, you started a shell. With the first su to root, you started a subshell as root. The next su to your user started yet another subshell -- note that at this moment you have three shells running. So instead of su-ing to your user from the rootshell, exit-ing back to your login shell will ...


5

You don't explain advanced computing concepts to non-technical people. You explain simple computing concepts to non-technical people. Bandwidth and CPUs and routers are simple computing concepts. And concepts that they actually want to know about. What non-technical people rarely want to know about are things like the South Bridge on a motherboard, or the ...


4

One of the qualities of a good technology professional is being able to explain modern computing concepts and procedures in lay man terms/illustrations for the every day user. First off, you cannot speak down or in a condescending manner. This is one of the most common complaints of poor technicians and support staff. I like to use everyday modern ...


4

Bash is not the only shell. Your issue could be a simple matter of not having a .profile or .bashrc that sets PS1, or it could be that your login shell is not bash at all. Bash uses gnu readline for things like tab completion. This is a complicated subject and readline even has its own per-user config file. See man bash, man sh, and man 3 readline. Bash ...


4

Your prompt appears to be normally set by one of your shell startup files that is not being run when you su from root to your user. If you're using bash, man bash in the INVOCATION section might be enlightening. There are several startup files that bash might read, including but not limited to: /etc/profile ~/.bash_profile ~/.bash_login ~/.profile ...


4

I find its best to relate a complex topics to something familiar to the audience. For instance: I'm a software developer and my wife (who is not a computer guru) often asks me how my day was when I get home. I will usually start telling her about the whatever problem I worked on that day. Once I tried to explain about how I discovered someone had ...


4

Verify that they are using the internet properly. Typing "http://www.google.com" into Notepad is not the internet. Check the physical connection, if there is none make sure they have the right wireless network selected. Restart everything, router, computer, modem. Make sure all options are properly configured (DNS, Static / generated IP, etc) under network ...


4

If they will be using the VM at separate times, put all the VM files in some shared location. (I usually use /vm.) The easy way to do that is to set VirtualBox's preferences to look there as the default VM location. If you want them to be able to use it simultaneously, that's less trivial, so mention if you do.


4

Because the authors of those programs choose to use separate user databases rather than using the system password database. One reason why that is sometimes done is if the program needs to have access to the plaintext version of the password, perhaps because it is implementing a network protocol which requires that, as there is no way to access the ...


4

Left in it's default configuration, running an account with USER permissions on Windows 7 will have essentially the effect you're describing, gmunk. User Access Control (UAC) and the default rights of a USER account set account permissions more or less exactly as you describe. No special configuration necessary. UPDATE: It depends. As always. Depending ...


4

icacls D:\bar /grant:r foo:(oi)(ci)r icacls D:\bar\*.dbf /t /grant foo:m (/grant:r to replace existing perms)


4

It would probably be better to set it through group policy as a logon script in the user section of the GPO. You can set it at the domain level so everyone within the domain no matter what gets it.


4

Why don't you just login to your regular account and whenever you need to do admin stuff, just use runas command line. This should give you the best of both world.


4

You need to set this setting under User Configuration, then apply the GPO to the appropriate OU and security filter it so that it only targets the users you'd like to disable the policy for. For instance, create a Disabled Windows Update user group. Assign all of the user accounts you'd like to disable Automatic Updates to this group. Then, when applying ...


3

You can switch user (ie. Lock) by using the shortcut Windows+L. If it does not prompt you for the password, it means there is no password (ie. it is disabled). Based on How to remove login password from windows 8 logon and login automatically without entering it, you should: Run (Windows+R) netplwiz Un-check the requirement to enter username and password. ...


3

Open the control panel: swipe in from the right (or press Win+C), then click on Control Panel Click on User Accounts and Family Safety Click User Accounts Click Manage Another Account This will show all accounts linked to this computer, including both local and Microsoft accounts. Local accounts will be noted as such, and Microsoft accounts will display ...


3

for windows 7 you should be using icacls, Both cacls and icacls works with either users or groups icacls "C:\My\ISS\Path" /grant "USERS":R /T



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