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comment Why do we have NAT if we could just assign a public IP address?
NAT does little for security. The fact that your NAT box is also state-full firewall provides security, but any state-full firewall could block incoming request with exactly the same effect as NAT. Whats more, it actually is a vulnerability because your single public IP is a point of infection for multiple computers (what if someone hacks your NAT), on the other-hand, a well engineered IP6 set up has a firewall that is invisible to the outside world, and each incoming computer has a unique IP address. At the smallest possible local network size that is 2^64 address to scan.