I know that in order to compile c on fedora I need to use gcc, but what about debug? How can I debug c on Fedora? What IDE can I use?
You can use gdb to debug your c code. Gdb is available under fedora, as it is on virtually every linux distribution.
Keep in mind gdb is a command line tool. If you want to use an IDE, you have to choose between a vast abundance of tools. E.g. eclipse, kdevelop, anjuta, netbeans IDE, emacs only to name some all of which are available for fedora or at least are easy to install.