Your disks are fine and are being recognized fine.
Your partitions aren't being recognized because the sector sizes are incompatible. The maximum disk size supported by standard 512-byte sectors on an MBR drive is 2TB. In order to allow larger drives, many USB adapters (such as yours) use proprietary 512 => 4096 byte sector translations and pretend to have 4096 byte sectors when the drive behind it actually doesn't.
Since locations on a drive are referenced by their sector number, trying to read a partition or filesystem set up with a sector size of 4096b in a system that detects the true sector size of 512b will mean every address, size, and location is off by a factor of 8.
This means cannot simply take a drive set up with this translation and use it in a system without. You need to erase the drive and repartition it, or put it back in the original USB adapter and transfer the data off to elsewhere.
Alternatively it's theoretically possible to implement the sector-size translation in software, using e.g. a loopback device under Linux, though this is sub-optimal, and I've not actually seen it done.