When you cloned the disk it got another disk ID number I suppose (or you accessed SSD after cloning while it was attached to OS on hard disk).
Disk ID + partition ID are used to completely address a partition - value stored in BCD for a partition device.
To fix issue you have to repair BCD on SSD - fix default boot entry to point to OS on SSD disk. Amend device and OS device for default loader using bcdedit on BCD on SSD.
If system partition (active partition or EFI System partition) on SSD is not mapped you have to map it!
Alternatively you could use Visual BCD Editor for comfortably fixing BCD on SSD, just drop BCD from SSD on Visual BCD Editor icon (after installing the tool) and then make the changes to "ApplicationDevice" and "OSDevice" by click and selection.
Note: the error is NOT "winload.exe is missing or corrupt" BUT 0xc00000e - "A required device isn't connected or can't be accessed"! Heading should changed.