I'm trying to setup remote connection to my Windows 10 machine. During the setup I noticed that my installation is missing some settings all the tutorials have. Can anyone tell me why I'm stupid and what I should do? Below you can find a screenshot of what I'm talking about. The first image is how it should be. The second picture is a screenshot on my machine.
Well, I couldn't really see the version but it seems you're on a HOME edition.
As per Microsoft's Official site comparison says that Windows 10 Home has no RDP feature listed.
You might want to compare the features as to per your needs, then look to upgrade for a suitable version.
Source: Compare Windows 10 Editions
You are using the Windows 10 Home edition. Home editions of Windows do not contain the built-in RDP feature.
Remote Desktop (RDP) has always been a built-in feature of the Pro and higher versions, leaving Home without RDP. There are other 3rd party solutions though which can be used with the Home version, including VNC.
Or you could upgrade to the Windows 10 Pro version.