Linux has supported boot/system volume encryption like Veracrypt for a long time using its own separate integrated system called LUKS, which is not compatible with Truecrypt/Veracrypt.
Veracrypt (if it's like Truecrypt) is implemented on Linux via FUSE. FUSE is a way to implement filesystems without writing a kernel driver, the cost of this is speed. LUKS is part of the kernel and is faster than Veracrypt would be, so this is why LUKS is preferred if you are using Linux.
LUKS is well supported by Debian and other distribution installers, it's fairly simple to encrypt your full system, or full Linux partition, except for a small boot partition containing the kernel and initial RAM disk. This is equivalent to everything being encrypted on Truecrypt/Veracrypt except the bootloader, which has to be unencrypted so the BIOS/UEFI can read it.
I have never used Kali, but if it uses the standard Debian installer, you do this to encrypt the full partition (reference):
To create an encrypted partition, you must first assign an available
partition for this purpose.
To do so, select a partition and indicate
that it is to be used as a “physical volume for encryption”. After
partitioning the disk containing the physical volume to be made,
choose “Configure encrypted volumes”.
The software will then propose
to initialize the physical volume with random data (making the
localization of the real data more difficult), and will ask you to
enter an “encryption passphrase”, which you will have to enter every
time you boot your computer in order to access the content of the
Once this step has been completed, and you have
returned to the partitioning tool menu, a new partition will be
available in an “encrypted volume”, which you can then configure just
like any other partition.
In most cases, this partition is used as a
physical volume for LVM so as to protect several partitions (LVM
logical volumes) with the same encryption key, including the swap
partition (see sidebar SECURITY Encrypted swap partition).
One thing to note is that I don't believe there is a tool that will encrypt/decrypt a currently running system like Truecrypt/Veracrypt does.
It's technically possible to mount the root filesystem via FUSE - meaning I believe it's possible to boot Linux off of a Veracrypt-encrypted partition if you really wanted to, but since it provides inferior speed to LUKS under Linux, it's not surprising if no one has developed this method.