The first thing I noticed in the screenshots is the really high CPU temperature - on my laptop with i3-2xxxM the temperature never exceeds 60°C even under load, and idle temps are usually about 40°C in normal room temperature conditions. If these are screenshots from the idle system then this would be a good reason for an emergency shutdown when you start a game that uses a lot of processor power.
There could be just a lot of dust in the cooling system so it's probably worth trying to use a vacuum cleaner and suck the dust out of the laptop (in opposite direction to the airflow when the machine is switched on). But make sure by all means that the PC is completely off and carefully block the CPU fan with a plastic pin or something like that when you use the vacuum cleaner as it may make the fan spin so fast that it's bearing gets damaged otherwise. This is a good idea from time to time anyway, but always remember to block the fan.
Then you should try playing with the energy options in control panel, for example there are settings for "active" or "silent" cooling policies. It may also make sense to look for any tools or customized drivers on the PC manufacturer's website. Sometimes, although less likely on laptops, there are system cooling or temperature management options in the PC's BIOS/UEFI setup, so look if there are any BIOS updates available as well while you're there.
It's still possible that there is a general problem with the Windows 10 chipset drivers and your specific computer mainboard, as these drivers control the system cooling and fan behaviour, but I wouldn't give up so quickly. But in general, this sounds like a heat problem to me.