Is a SD memory technically identical to a MicroSD with SD adapter? Can a software or reader distinguish one from other?
A MicroSD card to SD adapter is little more than just wires to create an SD card pinout instead. There is no active conversion being done, see the below pin out:
As you can see, the only difference between the two is that MicroSD has one less ground pin, otherwise they are like for like.
The answer is no, they are indistinguishable. SD, MiniSD and MicroSD are simply form factors for the actual technology (Which CAN be detected) of SD, SDHC and SDXC.