Is there a difference in storing fingerprint information with a PC with and without TPM/Intel PTT on windows 10 and, how secure is it?
The TPM just stores keys to verify code that will be executed/booted, its not like the secure enclave Apple developed for touch ID. With the secure enclave fingerprint markers are stored in an integrated circuit that has no way of revealing them, only comparing. Win10 devices can at best encrypt them and then store them on disk. In theory they are recoverable if difficult to do so.
As an aside, they're a terrible method of authentication since revocation is completely impossible, as are all biometric methods. If I set up a private key, or a password, and somebody gets their hands on it, I can revoke that key or password and configure a new one. If somebody gets my fingerprint, they have it. The only thing I can do is abandon the entire authentication system.