Okay, so right after I posted the below Original Answer content, I actually ran the same script on my Windows 10 machine, and guess what... Windows Updates started to install anyway.
It seems that Microsoft has made some changes with Windows 10 to ensure security updates get installed on the OS to patch security vulnerabilities, and rightfully so in the name of security.
It seems what you are asking for Windows 10 may not have a 100% for sure method to completeas you requested exactly without disabling Windows Updates altogether.
If a Windows update already installed (or is installing) while you are logged in behind the scenes prior to the forceful reboot, and even after stopping Windows Update services, etc. Windows 10 seems smart enough to still wait for any pending updates or perhaps rollback whatever changed that wasn't 100% committed to the system before power cycling the OS.
I suppose you could simply hard boot your machine by disconnecting the power source, holding down the power button, etc. but this would essentially emulate an unexpected power outage and you will have potential for corruption of the file system and so on.
I found a couple other sources I wanted to post for potential halfway or workaround methods to maybe help with some non-security updates or for better controlling when to allow updates to even be downloaded—it won't have anything to install if there is nothing downloaded.
Option 2: Setup A Metered Connection
Windows 10 offers users on metered
a compromise: to save bandwidth Microsoft confirms the operating
system will only automatically download and install updates it
classifies as ‘Priority’.
While Microsoft doesn’t reveal its method of classification, this does
cut down more frivolous updates which typically include new drivers
and software features – both of which have already caused stability
- Open the Settings app (Win + I)
- Open the ‘Network & Internet’ section
- Open ‘Wi-Fi’ and click ‘Advanced Options’
- Toggle ‘Set as metered connection’ to ‘On’
Note: If your PC uses an Ethernet cable to connect to the Internet the
Metered Connection option will be disabled as it works with Wi-Fi
connections only (silly I know).
Option 3: Group Policy Editor
This is a halfway house: the group policy editor will notify you about
new updates without automatically installing them (how previous
generations of Windows always worked) – though again security updates
will still install automatically.
Note: Windows 10 Home users have to sit this one out, it is only for
Windows 10 Education, Pro and Enterprise editions.
- Open the Run command (Win + R), in it type: gpedit.msc and press
- Navigate to: Computer Configuration -> Administrative Templates ->
Windows Components -> Windows Update
- Open this and change the Configure Automatic Updates setting to ‘2 –
Notify for download and notify for install’
- Open the Settings app (Win + I) and navigate to -> Update and
Security -> Windows Updates. Click ‘Check for updates’ which applies
the new configuration setting
As stated here in the Stop Windows 10 from automatically updating your PC post, I think it is important to know that, "As a general rule, an up-to-date operating system is a secure operating system. Windows 10 automatically checks for, downloads and installs new updates to your PC -- whether you like it or not. This new feature is actually pretty convenient for most users, but not everyone wants their operating system updated on Microsoft's schedule." source
Surge Protection and Power Outages
To protect yourself from an unexpected power outage or electrical
surge, you should consider UPS battery backups and surge protection. If your
PC is powered on or plugged into an electrical receptacle and you are not
present when one of these situations occur, or are more likely to occur
(e.g. thunderstorm) you can proactively protect your system at this
level regardless. Additionally, for critical data in your system,
consider performing routine backups accordingly elsewhere off this machine
such as external media, secure remote cloud backup, etc.
For a quick and not so clean way to do this, you could kill any running or applicable Windows services related to Windows Updates, and then perform the forceful restart.
Save the Batch Script logic in the example below to a text document and rename it to
<something>.cmd to your desktop. Be sure to right-click it and select run as administrator when you need to perform this as you explain in instances where you are available to do so.
FOR %%B IN (wuauserv,BrokerInfrastructure) DO NET STOP %%B
SHUTDOWN -r -t 01