The Preview in Windows Explorer is handled by add-ons, which are little programs
that declare themselves to Explorer so it knows to load them when encountering
a matching file-type.
Unfortunately, Microsoft supplies add-ons for only a few most-used file-types,
leaving the work for other file-types to the companies that invented them.
LibreOffice has not (maybe just yet) supplied such an add-on.
One must then depend on third-party software for furnishing them.
The only product I know of that does the Preview for LibreOffice is
Quick View Plus Standard Edition, which unfortunately is commercial
software, $49 with a 30-day trial version.
It is advertised as compatible with Windows 10 and integrating with
Windows Explorer, Internet Explorer 8, 9 and 10 (probably forgot to add 11),
Microsoft Outlook (Express), Firefox and more.
It cannot integrate with Edge, since at the moment Edge doesn't have add-ons.
(I have no experience with this product.)