In my case, the problem was the ISO:
Something happened to the ISO while moving to a Windows Machine:
I usually work on a Linux machine, but to create a Bootable USB, I prefer to use Rufus (because there isn't a functional Tool on Linux to create a Bootable Windows 10 USB).
So, i get an official Windows ISO, copied to an USB Stick and moved to an Windows PC to create an Bootable USB Stick with Rufus. Now i got the mentioned Error.
I verified the Hash Value of the ISO immediately after the Download, and after i've copied to the other Windows computer with the Official Hash Values of Microsoft.
on my Linux System, with bash:
on the Windows System (after copied), with Powershell:
The Hash Values where different. Although nothing has changed. (The Values above are just examples and differs from your Hash)
I believe that is why the error arises. (Maybe this has something to do with secure boot?)
I've solved this by packing the ISO in a TAR file, before i transfer the File to the USB Stick (to move it to the Windows System).
After TAR extract on Windows, the Hash Value are the same and the Windows Installation Error are gone.
Lessons learned : TAR Archive leaves Files untouched.
So, in your Case: Check your ISO