The short answer is no. With Vim, the swap files are constantly kept open while the buffer is being edited. It could slow editing too much to open the swap file and close it every time a change is made to it (the swap file is updated after typing 200 characters or when you have not typed anything for four seconds).
If you don’t want a swap file to be used for a certain buffer or buffers, you can temporarily unset the
To open a new buffer without using a swap file, you can use the
:noswapfile modifier, e.g.,
:noswapfile edit ~/.bashrc
From your use case, it sounds like you could benefit from Vim sessions. When you’re finished editing, run
mksession to save your session in a Vim script file called
Session.vim in the current directory. Then type
xa to write and quit all files. The next time you’re running Vim, start it in the same working directory by using
vim -S Session.vim
Alternatively, if you’ve already started Vim, you can source the session script with
help Session for more information on this useful feature.
BTW, with regard to screen, I presume you’re only closing the screen session (rather than detaching it) because the computer is being shut down or restarted.