Please help me understand this whole thing about loose and strict source routing
The idea behind Loose Source Routing (LSR) is to specify a Loose Source Route, which specifies a system through which the packets must pass through before proceeding on to their destination.
Unfortunately, source routing has a great potential for abuse, and therefore most network administrators block all source-routed packets at their border routers.
So, in practice, Loose Source Routes aren't going to work.
ping -j 18.104.22.168 google.com
Request timed out
This probably fails because the owner of 22.214.171.124 has balocked source-routed packets (see above).
ping -j google.com 192.168.1.3
Bad route specified for loose source route.
This command won't work because you have the destination address before the intermediate destinations.
The following command might work, assuming source-routed packets are not blocked.
ping -j 192.168.1.3 google.com