Found the answer to my own question.
I've reset the PC before but this time I can't. I can see the recovery partition in Windows Disk Manager, but Windows 10 does not use it when trying to reset. The error is "could not find the recovery environment"
(Note: I came across this command when reading about my problem. I did not find any solutions, but I figured it out by messing around. Its a very simple fix if you have the same circumstances as me. It works for me, although I am unsure why, so I may post why later if I find out).
In the command prompt (run as administrator for this to work), type
reagentc /?. It will give you a paragraph of info about the command.
reagentc /enable. This will enable Windows RE, which I can only assume stands for something like, say, Windows Recovery Environment.
I'm not sure yet. I was messing around in the UEFI settings and came across an item that said "Erase all secure boot settings" and "restore secure boot to factory default". I was also trying to dual-boot Ubuntu with Windows 10. Basically, be careful messing with UEFI or installing Ubuntu because you could do more than stop recovery, you could brick your device and we don't want that.
If I find the cause, I will post it.