It seems that with Google Chrome Version 51.0.2704.84 (or very recently) has introduced an "elastic rubber band" effect when you try to scroll past the top or bottom of a webpage, with a mouse wheel (scroll wheel).
I am using OS X, and have never seen this behavior before in Chrome.
I find that the rubber band effect can be useful on touch devices, but I don't need it when using mice with desktop computers. When I scroll to the very end with my mouse wheel, that's typically where I want to go, and the rubber band effect is just an annoyance and delays further action.
I checked in chrome://flags, but can't seem to find a setting. Not sure.
Update 2016-09-04: This "problem" has now gone away, and the inertia setting is back to it's previous "immediate stop" behaviour when scrolling to page ends with a mouse wheel. I'm not sure what changed, but might've been a Google Chrome update. I have accepted the answer below, in case it helps somebody with a particular flavour of the issue.