All the things mentioned above are working fine in Firefox but I'm having problem in Google Chrome. I'm posting below the screenshots of both the browsers displaying the same pages differently.
As I said, everything is normal in Firefox.
Google Chrome :
All the images are being displayed in a weird way. When I click on an image it redirects me to the page hosting the image, instead of zooming it. Also this error is displaying in the console.
All other sites are working just fine on Chrome. Google homepage, images and search results are the places I've encountered problems on.