I couldn't get my USB 3.0 ProDock Ethernet port to connect to the Internet for my connected Windows 10 ThinkPad. However, plugging into my native Ethernet port on the back of the laptop worked.
I only use one port at at time, so despite warnings from Windows, I gave them both the same static IP address. But then, the dock quit working and it seems that I've tried every combination of setting IP addresses versus "Automatic" settings.
When I run
ipconfig, I see that the docking station Ethernet adapter gets an autoconfigured IP address, even when I try to explicitly assign a Static IP address.
(The post here might be related, but it didn't mention the need for setting a static IP address.)