I've done some googling on this, and it looks like everything is pointing towards a corrupt profile or SID. The issue is that in this instance it's a domain roaming profile, I've tried a brand new one, and the same profiles that won't log onto this computer work on others.
Works fine with my domain administrator account, and local administrator accounts.
I've tried removing the computer from the domain and re-adding it with no change.
Windows throws Event ID 1500 at time of login attempt:
Windows cannot log you on because your profile cannot be loaded. Check that you are connected to the network, and that your network is functioning correctly.
DETAIL - Only part of a ReadProcessMemory or WriteProcessMemory request was completed.