I have Win 7 Professional 32 bit SP 1 and I received a notification about the available important security update KB3185330 today, but it fails to install.
I tried to install it through the Windows Updater, it downloaded it, initialized the installation and requested a reboot, which I did. During shutdown, it starts preparing the update and during the next boot, it continues until around 80-100%. Then it fails, rolls back the upgrade and reboots again. After that, the update is still listed for installation and shows as failed attempt in the update log with error code 80004005.
Downloading the update manually from the link above and executing it leads to the same result.
As it has been mentioned a few times, I am dual-booting with Ubuntu 16.04, using GRUB boot manager.
I already tried downloading and running this Windows Update Diagnostics file, it said to have found some problems and fixed them, but rebooting and reattempting the update leads to the same result.
What is wrong with my system? How can I install this security update?
What error logs do you need to troubleshoot the issue and where can I find them?