I set up a new Debian 8.6 VM today (Windows 7 Host) and have installed guest additions from the disk image via terminal. I also installed dkms, altered my grub file. Plain old dkms installed just find, but aptitude couldn't find any of the virtualbox-guest files at all. Having done all this and restarted my VM every step along the way, I still am stuck at 1024 x 768 display resolution on my 1080p monitor. Even if I set the VM to full-screen mode, it gives me a display area of the exact same size as before, just with black letterboxing all around it.
Everything else I've seen about this problem seems to be some sort of variation on the advice that hasn't worked for me thus far.