The answer depends on a few factors which means its a yes and no kind of answer. Due to how the question is stated, that would make it a no.
But I'll clarify.
There are a few different types of sockets: PCI, AGP and PCI-Express. Although the former two are ancient by now, I still occasionally find an old pc with an AGP slot. Obviously an AGP videocard won't fit in a PCI-Express interface and visa-versa.
That said, PCI-Express has its own standards too: PCI-Express 1x, 2x, 4x, 8x, etc. The higher the number, the faster it can perform. Although graphics cards are backward compatible, a significant speed decrease will be noticable in these cases and as such, you want to avoid that.
In addition, the more powerful graphics cards have additional ATX power connectors, and as such require a capable ATX power supply with sufficient output. The power supply is not part of the mainboard though, but to be thorough, I added the information regardless.