From other programs, I'm used to something like Ctrl+Alt+Shift+C/M or similar.
Edit: Apparently it is also not possible to define custom shortcuts in PowerPoint? Please correct me if this is wrong/outdated info.
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Add the required align option to the quick access tool bar. Reorder these items if necessary so that the align options are in are say 3 and 4. Then alt-3 or alt-4 will select them with a single key stroke. (Using ppt 2016)
This also works for 2013 and 2010, by the way.
Here's a short video that explains how to customize the Quick Access Toolbar (QAT to its friends) https://support.office.com/en-us/article/Customize-the-Quick-Access-Toolbar-43fff1c9-ebc4-4963-bdbd-c2b6b0739e52
There are no default shortcuts for these operations.
However, there is a (paid) add-on PowerPoint ShortcutTools 3.0 that adds these and many other shortcuts.
Here are just some of the new shortcuts. Note they have different names for the functionality.