Another possible way of doing it, if Clonezilla (or any other imaging software) gave you a complete list of the bad sectors' LBAs : use Microsoft's nfi.exe tool. It's a very small command line tool which can parse the MFT and either provide a list of the sectors occupied by a given file (if you enter a file pathname), or find the file corresponding to a given sector.
Yet another possibility : some defragmenters display the files associated with the blocks that you hover over with the mouse pointer. (It's less accurate but more convenient.)
Again another possibility : R-Studio includes an hexadecimal analyzer (and rudimentary editor). For each file it detects and displays in a recovery tree, you can right-click to open the hexadecimal analyzer, then in the “Data interpreter corner”, click on the “Sectors” tab, and voilà, you get a list of the occupied sectors. To get only the number of the first sector, click on the “Properties” tab and read the last line.
Another advanced trick with R-Studio : in the recovery tree tab for a given partition (can be a clone of the original, can also be an image file), click on “File” then “Show files in HexEditor” : this will create an entire hexadecimal presentation of the volume with all the associated file names (can take some time for a large volume), which you can then use to find which files are associated to a given sector. To do this, return to the “Device view” general tab (the one which is displayed when you open R-Studio, which lists the available volumes), right-click on the volume that you are trying to recover from (the entire volume, not the individual partitions), and then click on “View/Edit” to display the hexadecimal presentation ; here you can enter a sector number or offset value in the blank field in the middle of the upper tool-bar. It has a small bug or inconvenience though : in my experience (with R-Studio 8.0), to display the content of a given file you have to enter the logical sector number relative to the partition where it's located (the number displayed at the last line in the “Properties” tab in the individual hexadecimal view of a selected file), but to get the name of the file (or sometimes files, when there are hard links, or when a file has been identified both within the file system and as a raw file appearing in “Extra found files”) associated with a given sector, you have to enter the absolute sector number, relative to the whole volume, so you have to add the offset of the partition in sectors. For instance, I analyzed a 3TB HDD, with a single partition begining at offset 135266304 (129MB), so, in order to display the name of the file(s) associated with logical sector 1000000 for instance, I had to add 135266304 / 512 = 264192, and enter a value of 1264192 (but then the content displayed didn't match, the actual content of the file would be displayed at sector 1000000 indeed).
WinHex can also analyze a NTFS partition (possibly other file systems too, never tried but it's supposed to), or an image of an entire volume (provided that you open it by selecting its correct type in the “Open” menu – generally “All types of images” works well), and for any given location it will display the name of the associated file, or indicate if it's registered as free space.
I don't know if it's possible to get a list of the bad sectors once they have been reallocated, though. At that point, they are presented by the HDD to the system “transparently” (or rather “obscurely” should we say) just as if they were the original sectors in the sequential order, and the original sectors are gone forever, from what I could gather. (Someone could make a song with that shit, and sadly, in 2017 it could become a hit!)