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I need to setup a ssh server that way, that it will accept password authentication only when there is no key added. So when a new user is created he can copy his key by password-based authentication.

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    Any hacker will love your arrangement. – MariusMatutiae Dec 23 '16 at 13:16
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    @MariusMatutiae perhaps you should say a bit more to help out our new member. – uSlackr Dec 23 '16 at 14:12
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    @MariusMatutiae, it's really small not very used server. Mainly for small personal purposes. But, why it's so bad arrangement? – michalhosna Dec 23 '16 at 15:33
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It is not possible with pure openssh. But you might be able to make it working using PAM. Conceptually, you should be able to /etc/pam.d/sshd a line with

password required pam_exec.so /usr/bin/test -s ~/.ssh/authorized_keys

I didn't test it, but you should be able to make up missing bits, if some.

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