I was wondering if I can hook up a high resolution amoled display such as this one to an arduino microcontroller?
It use standard MIPI interface. I doubt it can be driven directly by arduino. Take a look at this project, it based on FPGA controller Xilinx Spartan-6. AFAIK it is the only one that can make a bridge between arduino and MIPI DSI displays.
I think that I2C or SPI OLED displays are more easy to implement natively on arduino. Look for 128X64 OLED 0.96" I2C IIC SPI Serial LED Display Module or similar if it fit to your project.