Almost three years gone since question was asked, but I think my answer still could be actual for some people.
I also was curious about power consumption of modern 2.5" drives, but didn't found any good articles except this discussion and THG article about 500 Gb drives (mentioned in question). After some further googling I've found official specification of Seagate Barracuda 2.5" 3/4/5 Tb drives for spinning up/reading/writing/sleep modes.
Since all modern 2.5" HDDs are more or less common in their implementation we can use this specification as reference, but keeping in mind that other drives could have deviation up to 20% in comparison to this specification (like in question's table).
For archival purposes here is excerpt from the specification.
Typical power measurements are based on an average of drives tested, under nominal
conditions, at 25°C ambient temperature. These power measurements are done with
• Spinup current is measured from the time of power-on to the time
that the drive spindle reaches operating speed.
• Read/Write current is measured with the heads on track, based on
three 64 sector read or write operations every 100 ms.
• The drive supports two idle modes: Active Idle mode and Low Power Idle
│ Power Dissipation │ 5TB, 4TB & 3TB models │
│ │ +5V input average (25° C) │
│ Spinup (max) │ 1.2A (6W) │
│ Write average │ 2.10W │
│ Read average │ 1.90W │
│ Idle, low power mode │ 0.85W │
│ Standby/sleep │ 0.18W │
Standby power is measured at steady state (after 200ms from transition)
P.S.: I'm not affiliated with Seagate company in any possible way.